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The field of robotics has changed in numerous and exciting ways since the early 's when robot manipulators were touted as the ultimate solution to automated manufacturing. Early predictions were that entire factories of the future would require few, if any, human operators. Some predicted that even electric lighting would be unnecessary as robots would "happily" carry out their work in total darkness.
These predictions seem naive today but it is nevertheless interesting to examine some of the reasons why they failed to materialize. The first reason can be stated very simply: robotics is difficult or, somewhat equivalently, humans are very good at what they do. Automated manufacturing is not simply a matter of removing a human worker from an assembly line and installing a robot.
Rather, it involves complex systems integration problems. Often, the entire workcell must be redesigned, beginning with an analysis of the assembly process itself and leading to part and fixture redesign, workcell layout, sensor development, contro'! The result is that any savings in labor costs often did not outweigh the development costs, except for relatively simple tasks like spot welding, spray painting, and palletizing.
As a result, robotics fell out of favor in the late 's. We are now wit- nessing a resurgence of interest in robotics, not only in manufacturing, but in other areas such as medical robotics, search and rescue, entertainment, and service robotics. Recent years have seen robots exploring the surface of Mars, locating sunken ships, searching out land mines, and finding vic- tims in collapsed buildings.
Robotics is now seen as part of the larger field of mechatronics, which is defined as the synergistic integration of mechan- ics, electronics, controls, and computer science. The robot is the ultimate mechatronic system. The present text began as a second edition of M. Spong and M. We have re- tained the philosophy and a good portion of the material from that earlier book but have added much that is new. The material on motion planning, computer vision, and visual servo control is entirely new.
All of the control chapters have been rewritten to reflect the maturation of the field of robot control that took place during an intensive period of research at the end of the 's and early 's. The fundamentals of kinematics and dynam- ics remain largely the same but has been expanded and improved from a pedagogical standpoint.
Organization of the Text This text is organized into twelve chapters. The first six chapters are at a relatively elementary level whereas the last six chapters are more advanced. The chapters can be conceptually divided into three groups. After an in- troductory chapter, Chapters 2 through 5 deal with issues related to the geometry of robot motion.
Chapters 6 through 10 deal with dynamics and control. Finally, Chapters 11 and 12 discuss computer vision and how it can be incorporated directly into the robot control loop. A more specific description of the chapters is as follows. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the terminology and history of robotics and discusses the most common robot design and applications.
Chapter 2 presents the mathematics of rigid motions; rotations, transla- tions, and homogeneous transformations. Chapter 3 presents solutions to the forward kinematics problem using the Denavit-Hartenberg representation and to the inverse kinematics problem using the geometric approach, which is especially suited for manipulators with spherical wrists.
Chapter 4 is a lengthy chapter on velocity kinematics and the manip- ulator Jacobian. The geometric Jacobian is derived in the so-called cross product form. We also introduce the so-called analytical Jacobian for later use in task space control. Chapter 4 also discusses the important notion of manipulability. Chapter 5 is an introduction to the problems of motion planning and tra- jectory generation. Several of the most popular methods for motion planning and obstacle avoidance are presented, including the method of artificial po- tential fields, randomized algorithms, and probabilistic roadmap methods.
The problem of trajectory generation is presented as essentially a problem of polynomial spline interpolation. Chapter 6 is an introduction to independent joint control. Linear control based on PD, PID, and state space methods is presented for the tracking and disturbance rejection problem for linear actuator and drive-train dynamics.
The concept of feedforward control is introduced for tracking time-varying reference trajectories. Chapter 7 is a detailed account of robot dynamics. The Euler-Lagrange equations are derived from first principles and their structural properties are discussed in detail.
The recursive Newton-Euler formulation of robot dynamics is also presented. Chapter 8 discusses multivariable control. This chapter summarizes much of the research in robot control that took place in the late 's and early 's. Simple derivations of the most common robust and adaptive control algorithms are presented that prepare the reader for the extensive literature in robot control. Chapter 9 treats the force control problem.
Both impedance control and hybrid control arc discussed. We also present the lesser known hybrid impedance control method which allows one to control impedance and reg- ulate motion and force at the same time. To our knowledge this is the first textbook that discusses the hybrid impedance approach to robot force control. Chapter 10 is an introduction to geometric nonlinear control.
This chap- ter is considerably more advanced than the other chapters and can be re- served for graduate level courses in nonlinear control and robotics. However, the material is presented in a readable style that should be accessible for advanced undergraduates. We also briefly discuss Chow's Theorem for the problem of control of systems sub- ject to nonholonomic constraints.
Chapter 11 is an introduction to computer vision. We present those as- pects of vision that are most useful for robotics applications, such as thresh- holding, image segmentation, and camera calibration.
Chapter 12 discusses the visual servo control problem, which is the prob- lem of controlling robots using feedback from cameras mounted either on the robot or in the workspace: This text is suitable for several quarter or semester long courses in robotics, either as a sequence or as stand-alone courses. The independent joint control problem largely involves the control of actuator and drive train dynamics; hence most of the subject can be taught without prior knowledge of Euler-Lagrange dynamics.
For this reason, we have tried to make these chapters accessible to a wide variety of engineering students. The second course has typically been taken by upper level students pursu- ing graduate studies in robotics or control, and therefore these chapters are written at a more advanced level. Acknowledgements We would like to offer a special thanks to Peter Hokayem and Daniel Herring who did an outstanding job of producing most of the figures in the book. In addition, Benjamin Sapp provided most of the figures for Chapter 11 and Nick Gans provided many figures for Chapter We would like to thank Francois Chaumette for discussions regarding the formulation of the interaction matrix in Chapter 12 and to Martin Corless for discussion on the robust control problem in Chapter 8.
Mark W. Spong Seth Hutchinson M. Position-Based Approaches. Robotics is a relatively young field of modern technology that crosses traditional engineering boundaries. Understanding the complexity of robots and their application requires knowledge of electrical engineering, mechan- ical engineering, systems and industrial engineering, computer science, eco- nomics, and mathematics.
New disciplines of engineering, such as manu- facturing engineering, applications engineering, and knowledge engineering have emerged to deal with the complexity of the field of robotics and factory automation. This book is concerned with fundamentals of robotics, including kine- matics, dynamics, motion planning, computer vision, and control. Our goal is to provide an introduction to the most important concepts in these subjects as applied to industrial robot manipulators and other me- chanical systems.
The term robot was first introduced by the Czech playwright Karel Capek in his play Rossum 's Universal Robots, the word robota being the Czech word for work. Since then the term has been applied to a great variety of mechanical devices, such as teleoperators, underwater vehicles, autonomous land rovers, etc. Virtually anything that operates with some degree of autonomy, usually under computer control, has at some point been called a robot. In this text the term robot will mean a computer controlled industrial manipulator of the type shown in Figure 1.
This type of robot is essentially a mechanical arm operating under com- puter control. Such devices, though far from the robots of science fiction, are nevertheless extremely complex electromechanical systems whose analytical description requires advanced methods, presenting many challenging and interesting research problems.
Figure 1. Both are six-axis, high per- formance robots designed for materials handling or assembly applications. Photo courtesy of Adept Technology, Inc. Definition: A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator de- signed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
The key element in the above definition is the reprogrammability, which gives a robot its utility and adaptability. The so-called robotics revolution is, in fact, part of the larger computer revolution. Even this restricted definition of a robot has several features that make it attractive in an industrial environment.
Among the advantages often cited in favor of the introduction of robots are decreased labor costs, increased precision and productivity, increased flexibility compared with specialized machines, and more humane working conditions as dull, repetitive, or haz- ardous jobs are performed by robots. The robot, as we have defined it, was born out of the marriage of two earlier technologies: teleoperators and numerically controlled milling machines.
Computer numerical control CNC was developed because of the high precision required in the machining of certain items, such as components of high performance air- craft. The first robots essentially combined the mechanical linkages of the teleoperator with the autonomy and programmability of CNC machines.
The first successful applications of robot manipulators generally involved some sort of material transfer, such as injection molding or stamping, in which the robot merely attends a press to unload and either transfer or stack the finished parts. These first robots could be programmed to execute a sequence of movements, such as moving to a location A, closing a gripper, moving to a location B, etc.
More complex applications, such as welding, grinding, deburring, and assembly require not only more complex motion but also some form of external sensing such as vision, tactile, or force sensing, due to the increased interaction of the robot with its environment. Worldwide there are currently over , industrial robots in oper- ation, mostly in Japan, the European Union and North America see Fig- ure 1. After a period of stagnation in the late 's, the sale of industrial robots began to rise in the 's and sales growth is likely to remain strong for the remainder of this decade.
It should be pointed out that the important applications of robots are by no means limited to those industrial jobs where the robot is directly re- placing a human worker. In fact, there are over , household robots currently in use primarily as vacuum cleaning and lawn mowing robots. There are many other applications of robotics in areas where the use of hu- mans is impractical or undesirable. Among these are undersea and planetary exploration, satellite retrieval and repair, the defusing of explosive devices, and work in radioactive environments.
The classic text on robot manipulators now covers visual control, motion planning and mobile robots too! Robotics provides the basic know-how on the foundations of robotics: modelling, planning and control. The text develops around a core of consistent and rigorous formalism with fundamental and technological material giving rise naturally and with gradually increasing difficulty to more advanced considerations. His research interests include identification and adaptive control, impedance and force control, visual tracking and servoing, redundant and cooperative manipulators, lightweight flexible arms, space robots, human-centered and service robotics. He has co-authored 6 books, 6 edited volumes, and over technical papers. He has been one of the pioneers of robot control research.
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English Pages  Year Solutions Manual for the Robot Modeling and Control book. This self-contained introduction to practical robot kinematics and dynamics includes a comprehensive treatment of robot.
Convention Potential Fields Appendix B Linear Algebra B. Appendix C Lyapunov Stability C. Robotics is a relatively young field of modern technology that crosses tra-ditional engineering boundaries.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Spong and Seth Hutchinson and M. Spong , Seth Hutchinson , M. Vidyasagar Published Mathematics. Rigid Motions and Homogeneous Transformations.
Mark W. Spong matics, dynamics, motion planning, computer vision, and control. Our goal is to provide an MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ROBOTS.
Convention Potential Fields
Он закрыл глаза, и воспоминания хлынули бурным потоком. Он вспомнил факультетские заседания, лекции - все то, что заполняло девяносто процентов его жизни. Вспомнил о Сьюзан.
Конечно, это чертовски болезненно, но нам нужно было его остановить. - Не волнуйтесь, мадам, - заверил второй агент. - С ним все будет в порядке.
Наконец канадец опомнился. - Из консульства? - Его тон заметно смягчился. Беккер кивнул. - Так, значит, вы не по поводу моей колонки. - Нет, сэр.
Стратмор сидел за современным письменным столом с двумя клавиатурами и монитором в расположенной сбоку нише. Стол был завален компьютерными распечатками и выглядел каким-то чужеродным в этом задернутом шторами помещении. - Тяжелая неделя? - спросила. - Не тяжелей, чем обычно. - Стратмор пожал плечами.
Я полагал, что это невозможно. Но всякий раз, когда я перехватывал очередное сообщение, Танкадо был все более и более убедительным. Когда я прочитал, что он использовал линейную мутацию для создания переломного ключа, я понял, что он далеко ушел от нас. Он использовал подход, который никому из нас не приходил в голову. - А зачем это нам? - спросила Сьюзан.
Плутоний и уран, - повторял Джабба. - Переходите к главному. - Вернитесь назад, - приказала Сьюзан.
Стратмор знал, что его следующий шаг имеет решающее значение. От него зависела жизнь Сьюзан, а также будущее Цифровой крепости. Стратмор также понимал, что первым делом нужно разрядить ситуацию. Выдержав паузу, он как бы нехотя вздохнул: - Хорошо, Грег. Ты выиграл.
Преодолев треть ступенек, он почувствовал какое-то движение у подножия лестницы. Стратмор что-то задумал. - И не пытайтесь, коммандер, - прошипел. - Вы рискуете попасть в Сьюзан.
Постараюсь, Джабба. Поверь мне, постараюсь изо всех сил. ГЛАВА 52 Клуб Колдун располагался на окраине города, в конце автобусного маршрута 27. Похожий скорее на крепость, чем на танцевальное заведение, он со всех сторон был окружен высокими оштукатуренными стенами с вделанными в них битыми пивными бутылками - своего рода примитивной системой безопасности, не дающей возможности проникнуть в клуб незаконно, не оставив на стене изрядной части собственного тела.
И в то же время после провала с Попрыгунчиком Стратмор испытывал колоссальный стресс.
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