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Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterize and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessments , as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the natural environment. All monitoring strategies and programs have reasons and justifications which are often designed to establish the current status of an environment or to establish trends in environmental parameters.
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No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Artiola, Ian L. Pepper, Mark L. Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN acid-free paper 1. Environmental monitoring. Artiola, Janick F. Pepper, Ian L. Brusseau, Mark L. M64E —dc22 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library For all information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at www. Artiola, I. Pepper, and M. Artiola and A. Warrick, D. Myers, S. Musil, and J.
Brown and S. Wilson and J. Barackman and M. Yolcubal, M. Brusseau, J. Artiola, P. Wierenga, and L. Pepper, C. Rensing, and C. Brusseau, G. Famisan, and J. Gerba and I. Brusseau and R. Gerhart, W. Waugh, E. Glenn, and I. Population increases and technological advances are creating a burden on society by requiring continued expansion and concomitant resource use.
Substantial evidence exists showing that such development has led to detrimental impacts on the environment. We also know that increased societal activities and demands are changing soil, water, air, climate, and resources in unexpected ways.
This in turn has led to a renewed interest in protecting the environment and has focused attention on the concept of environmental monitoring and site characterization, including an evaluation of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that impact the environment. This information is necessary for researchers, decision-makers, and the community as a whole, to implement social changes needed to preserve and sustain a healthy environment for future generations.
The purpose of this textbook is to document the latest methodologies of environmental monitoring and site characterization important to society and human health and welfare. We know that the environment exists as a continuum of biosystems and physio-chemical processes that help sustain life on earth. Therefore environmental monitoring should ideally consist of examining the integrative nature of these processes.
To this end, basic principles of monitoring and characterization are described for different environments, considering their most relevant processes. Initially, sampling protocols are described, followed by documentation of quality control issues and statistical methods for data analysis. Methods for making field measurements in soil, vadose zone, water, and atmospheric environments are described.
This includes real-time monitoring, temporal and spatial issues, and the issues of scale of measurement. The book advances the state-of-the-art by not only documenting how to monitor the environment, but also by developing active strategies that allow for efficient characterization of specific environments.
In addition we provide approaches to evaluate and interpret data efficiently, with significant processes being documented via statistical analyses and, where appropriate, model development.
A particularly unique feature of the text is the discussion of physical, chemical, and microbial processes that effect beneficial as well as detrimental influences on the environment.
The text also puts into perspective site-specific remediation techniques that are appropriate for localized environments as well as full-scale ecosystem restoration. Finally, the role of risk assessment and environmental regulations in environmental monitoring is assessed.
How should the samples be analyzed? How should the data be interpreted? The fact that contributions come from national experts all located at the University of Arizona ensures that the book is well integrated and uniform in its level of content. Key features of the book include:. The concept of integrating environmental monitoring into site characterization. Numerous real-life case studies. The use of numerous computer graphics and photographs.
The integration of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Key references relevant to each topic. Waugh U. Michael J. Kirk W. Karl Enfield R. Kerr, U.
William T. Frankenberger Jr. Arthur G. Monroe, GA Dr. However, to the trained observer the environment is composed of integrated and interconnected cycles and domains. We now know that the environment is a continuum of physical, chemical, and biological processes that cannot be easily separated from one another. It is difficult to separate the physical, chemical, and biological processes of water within any particular environment, because water is transferred across boundaries.
Humans now have a more holistic view of the environment and recognize that many factors determine its health and preservation. We are now also concerned with sustainable and renewable versus non-renewable natural resources as well as with biodiversity in relation to our own survival. In scientific terms, we wish to collect data from which we can derive knowledge Figure 1. Thus, environmental monitoring has its role defined in the first three steps of the staircase and is rooted in the scientific method.
Objective observations produce sound data, which in turn produce valuable information. However, it is important to understand that other factors, including political, economic, and social factors, influence decision making. The information generated from monitoring activities can be used in a myriad of ways, ranging from understanding the short-term fate of an endangered fish species in a small stream, to defining the long-term management and preservation strategies of natural resources over vast tracts of land.
Box 1. Although Box 1. Many of us are rarely aware that such regulations exist and that these are the result of ongoing monitoring activities. Nonetheless, we all receive the benefits associated with these activities.
Recently, environmental monitoring has become even more critical as human populations increase, adding everincreasing strains on the environment. There are numerous examples of deleterious environmental changes that result from population increases and concentrated human activities.
For example, in the United States, the industrial and agricultural revolutions of the last years have produced large amounts of waste by-products that, until the late s, were released into the environment without regard to consequences.
In many parts of the developing world, wastes are still disposed of without treatment. Through environmental monitoring we know that most surface soils, bodies of waters, and even ice caps contain trace and ultratrace levels of synthetic chemicals e.
Also, many surface waters, including rivers and lakes, contain trace concentrations of pesticides because of the results of agricultural runoff and rainfall tainted with atmospheric pollutants. The indirect effects of released chemicals into the environment are also a recent cause of concern. Carbon dioxide gas from automobiles and power plants and Freon refrigerant gas released into the atmosphere may be involved in deleterious climatic changes.
Environmental monitoring is very broad and requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach. Environmental scientists require skills in basic sciences such as chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science.
Therefore, all science-based disciplines are involved in this endeavor. Science-based observations and measurements improve our understanding of the environment and lead to wise decision-making. From Roots, E. In: Terra Borealis.
For registration in the Workshop, please fill in the form here. Google Map [interactive]. Categories event Meetings workshop. Tomasz Berezowski and Marcin Kulawiak. Development and testing of UAV platform for hyperspectral monitoring of environment. Multi-temporal and individual inventory on olive plantations for disease prediction. Mapping of aquatic vegetation habitats and water bird distribution using unmanned aerial vehicle.
Sign in to view contract pricing. View Cart. Across many industries—aerospace, semiconductor manufacturing, military, medical devices, biotech and pharmaceuticals to name a few—cleanrooms are essential to any manufacturing operation where reducing contamination from airborne particles is critical to success. How important have cleanrooms been to industry? Cleanrooms have evolved since then, varying widely in size and complexity, but they still fall into two main categories based on how the air flowing through them is handled:.
The MSA project conducts environmental monitoring to measure radionuclide concentrations in various environmental media, including air, surface water, sediment, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish wildlife, and external radiation levels to assure the public that the dose and risk from Hanford contaminants are well understood. The data is also collected to monitor several chemical and metal levels in the Columbia River water and sediment, and in fish and wildlife. Surveillance activities focus on materials that are, have been, or potentially could be released from the Hanford Site; however, non Hanford releases are also considered.
Environmental Monitoring and Characterization is an integrated, hands-on resource for monitoring all aspects of the environment. Sample collection methods and relevant physical, chemical and biological processes necessary to characterize the environment are brought together in twenty chapters which cover: sample collection methods, monitoring terrestrial, aquatic and air environments, and relevant chemical, physical and biological processes and contaminants. This book will serve as an authoritative reference for advanced students and environmental professionals. Environmental consultants, regulators, and industry environmental scientists. Also advanced undergraduate students majoring in Environmental Sciences, and first- and second-year graduate students. Artiola, I. Pepper, M.
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This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Artiola, Ian L.
When dealing with increasing environmental concerns associated with water, air and soil pollution, as well as climate change induced by human activities, accurate assessment of the state of the environment is a prerequisite for undertaking any course of action towards improvement. This book deals with recent developments and applications of environmental monitoring technologies, with emphasis on optical and biological methods that are rapidly progressing through the integration of emerging technologies from various disciplines. Thirty-one chapters, written by internationally renowned researchers in their respective fields, have been selected from presentations at the 6th International Symposium on Advanced Environmental Monitoring , held June , in Heidelberg, Germany. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.
All human populations interact with the ecosystems surrounding them in some form or other. These interactions, whether they be hunting and harvesting available fauna and flora, agriculture, or nonrenewable resource extraction, involve some degree of management Lertzman In contemporary times, the necessity of managing ecosystems and the way people interact with them is particularly evident for adapting to environmental change, mitigating industrial activity, and conserving biodiversity. A key component of environmental management is monitoring—the act of detecting and analyzing changes within a system in order to inform appropriate management responses Lindenmayer and Likens Research in recent decades has demonstrated that environmental monitoring, when properly designed and linked to management bodies, can be done by local people as effectively as by academic or professional scientists, with the added benefits of being less expensive and increasing the likelihood of local people accepting resulting management actions Danielsen et al.
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