File Name: what term is used to describe alpha and beta glucose .zip
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The dawn phenomenon, also called the dawn effect, is the term used to describe an abnormal early-morning increase in blood sugar glucose — usually between 2 a. Some researchers believe the natural overnight release of the so-called counter-regulatory hormones — including growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon and epinephrine — increases insulin resistance, causing blood sugar to rise. High morning blood sugar may also be caused by insufficient insulin the night before, insufficient anti-diabetic medication dosages or carbohydrate snack consumption at bedtime. If you have persistently elevated blood sugar in the morning, checking your blood sugar once during the night — around 2 a.
Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers consisting of tens to hundreds to several thousand monosaccharide units. All of the common polysaccharides contain glucose as the monosaccharide unit. Polysaccharides are synthesized by plants, animals, and humans to be stored for food, structural support, or metabolized for energy. The major component in the rigid cell walls in plants is cellulose. Cellulose is a linear polysaccharide polymer with many glucose monosaccharide units. The acetal linkage is beta which makes it different from starch. This peculiar difference in acetal linkages results in a major difference in digestibility in humans.
Glucose is one of the "simple sugars" -- an ironic name, because the chemistry of these compounds is rather complex. The naming system for sugars reflects this complexity. Chemists use prefixes like alpha and beta to denote different versions of glucose and other sugar molecules. To the uninitiated, these prefixes may seem mysterious, but once you understand sugar structure, their nature and purpose will become clearer. Each molecule of glucose has a carbon backbone with -OH groups and hydrogen atoms attached to it. At the top of the chain, an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom; collectively, these two atoms are called a carbonyl group. The carbon backbone of the glucose molecule can coil up so that an -OH group near the bottom end of the chain attacks the carbonyl carbon and the glucose molecule forms a ring.
Diabetes keeps the body from being able to regulate levels of glucose in the blood. In the long term, this can lead to a wide range of life-changing complications, including vision loss, kidney damage, stroke, and heart disease. In the United States, estimates suggest that around In healthy individuals, the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at optimum levels through the opposing effects of two hormones, insulin and glucagon. Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin, which stimulates cells around the body to extract glucose from the bloodstream. Other cells in the pancreas, called alpha cells, produce glucagon, which increases the amount of glucose that the liver releases into the bloodstream.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6. Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide ,  a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls , which is the most abundant carbohydrate. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a polymer , in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin , and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar.
Define the term anomer and explain the difference between α and β anomers. Plants can use glucose to produce the ATP molecules that are needed to do the.
So far we have represented monosaccharides as linear molecules, but many of them also adopt cyclic structures. This conversion occurs because of the ability of aldehydes and ketones to react with alcohols:. In some cases, OH and carbonyl groups on the same molecule are able to react with one another in an intramolecular reaction. You might wonder why the aldehyde reacts with the OH group on the fifth carbon atom rather than the OH group on the second carbon atom next to it. Recall that cyclic alkanes containing five or six carbon atoms in the ring are the most stable.
Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл. - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности. Что случилось с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Не бывает такой диагностики, которая длилась бы восемнадцать часов. Все это вранье, и ты это отлично знаешь.
Я тебя разбудил. Она улыбнулась и поудобнее устроилась в постели. - Ты мне только что приснился. Приходи поиграть. - На улице еще темно, - засмеялся. - А-ах, - сладко потянулась. - Тем более приходи.
- Он засмеялся. - Попрыгунчик - древняя история. Стратмор дал маху. Но надо идти вперед, а не оглядываться все время. - В трубке воцарилась тишина, и Джабба подумал, что зашел слишком .
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