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No notes for slide. Principles of Teaching:Different Methods and Approaches 1. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of steps. It is more procedural.
Students are given the opportunity to interact with teacher and with other students. Time is spent on analyzing and solving problems.
In summary, approaches vary in the degree of teacher and learner engagement, focus, number of learners involved in the teaching-learning process as shown in the diagram below: Engagement Teacher Learner Focus Subject Matter Learner Number Individual Group Procedural knowledge refers to skills needed in the performance of a task.
This is what we call summative assessment. Summative assessments are often high stakes, which means that they have a high point value. If you teach facts, principles, or laws, your steps are similar with those of teaching a skill. This is what we call formative assessment.
Formative assessments are generally low stakes, which means that they have low or no point value. The strategy is teacher-directed. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill.
It is termed procedural knowledge. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire procedure with no step missed. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors that can be measured accurately.
This can also be used to teach facts, principles, and laws. The students must be given ample time for practice. They must be included in the planning stage since this technique is highly task-oriented and aimed at mastery of every step.
The lesson objectives are student-based. Describe the testing situation and specify the level of performance expected. Divide complex skills and understanding into subskills or into its component steps so they can be taught easily and with precision. Design own strategy in teaching each skill which will eventually contribute to the learning of the entire skill. Before the demonstration, carefully rehearse all steps.
The steps should be observed and followed. Assign practice for short periods of time, then continue learning by imitating others. Provide feedback and encouragement through praises. Positively motivated, the students will never get tired practicing. Be able to construct good performance- based tests.
Be sure the facts, principles, and laws are correctly, clearly, and adequately explained. Use visual aids to concretize abstract principles and laws. Illustrate laws and principles with concrete examples. Present facts meaningfully by citing their significance and by connecting them with everyday life.
The demonstrator is knowledgeable in preparing the apparatus needed according to the steps to be followed. The rest of the class becomes focused on the activity and concentration on the subject is assured.
When planning the activities make sure that the materials are easily available. Likewise, get prepared with possible substitutes. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be used. Demonstration should be scheduled as to day and class period. The demonstrator must try the activity several times before the real demonstrations for a smooth sequencing of the steps as well as accuracy of the result. The observers must be prepared and motivated to ensure concentration throughout the activity.
Arrange the observers around the demonstration area or at a distance where they will be able to observe fully what is going on.
Extreme care must be taken in performing some delicate steps. The activity must not be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings. They are allowed to take down short notes or record some data which may be analyzed after. AFTER 1. Allow some questions which bothered them during the demonstration.
An examination of the observed data and all information recorded follows. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or uniform occurrences that can help in arriving at a conclusion. The solution or summary must be cooperatively undertaken by the whole class. Assess learning by way of a short test, an oral evaluation or a performance test.
The demonstration method follows a systematic procedure. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well- planned in advance. It will not result to trial and error learning as what happens with unplanned learning activities.
The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has bee tried before. The value of confidence is developed among the demonstrators for such hands-on demonstration. Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers. Rather, we must provide them with opportunities to explore, inquire and discover new learning. The core of inquiry is a spontaneous and a self-directed exploration. Define the topic or introduce the question.
Guide students plan where and how to gather data and information. Students present findings through graph, charts, PowerPoint presentation, models, and writing. Investigative processes such as inferring, hypothesizing, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing, and experimenting, formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. The children are highly motivated to search, hence active participation is the best indicator of inquisitiveness.
The answers arrived at are genuine products of their own efforts. Focused questions before, during and after are critical ingredients that provide direction and sustain action. Its emphasis is on the processes of gathering and processing of information 2.
Teaching is a complex and multifaceted task. A list of methods or techniques for teaching would include many ideas and examples, and a full discussion of them would fill volumes. It is possible, however, to cluster them into some general areas of teaching methods, skills, or approaches that are essential to effective teaching. This section will address some of these important areas. When deciding which methods to use in teaching, it is important to remember that methods and skills are only means to an end, not an end in and of themselves. Teachers should select methods that will best help students understand the content, doctrines, and principles of a particular scripture block and that will facilitate edification and application.
Teaching is a complex, multifaceted activity, often requiring us as instructors to juggle multiple tasks and goals simultaneously and flexibly. The following small but powerful set of principles can make teaching both more effective and more efficient, by helping us create the conditions that support student learning and minimize the need for revising materials, content, and policies. While implementing these principles requires a commitment in time and effort, it often saves time and energy later on. When we teach, we do not just teach the content, we teach students the content. A variety of student characteristics can affect learning.
Methodical advantages of song creativity in teaching a foreign language are obvious. Douglas Brown. Limitations Teachers should select methods that will best help students understand the content, doctrines, and principles of a particular scripture block and that will facilitate Like other methods of teaching, a discussion needs to be carefully prepared and then conducted under the influence of the Spirit. There are many other applications of teaching theories including the implications of the social family within the classroom. The students participation is very limited where in they only ask questions orTeachers and teachers-in-training will enjoy reading this comprehensive survey and analysis of the major and minor teaching methods used around the world.
This course will help you develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement student-centered science instruction. First, we will explore why we teach science to all students and how our science education experiences impact our view of what good science teaching is. Next, we will examine multiple views on how students come to understand science, the teaching strategies research has identified as most effective and how these strategies can be implemented within the contexts of current high school science classrooms. In addition to learning how to teach biology to a diverse group of students, we will reconstruct our knowledge of biology to make it more contextual and conceptual. Finally, we will explore what it is like to be a science teacher and what type of science teacher each of you would like to be.
Thus, any attempt to understand effective language teaching must. The subject of the paper is andragogy. In social work ed-ucation asinalleducation , complex issuesemergeregarding thenature of learning and teaching. One pervasive and persisting issue is the rela-tion between subject matter, i. Description: Basic techniques of instruction, planning, and classroom management.
Answers are found after the last exercise. A statement of objectives, learning experience and the means of attaining results of teaching is called a. Teaching aids which the teacher uses to make learning meaningful, productive and interesting is known as: a. Teaching method which proceeds from the details of a lesson towards the generalization is called a. A teaching method which proceeds from a generalization, principle or rule is: a.
Coronavirus Information: Bradley University will continue on-campus, in-person classes for the spring semester with limited restrictions. A study at Bradley was undertaken to identify best practices for using Sakai in teaching and learning. The goal of the research was to develop recommendations for effective teaching using Sakai as a course supplement.
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