File Name: theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior .zip
The Epidemiologic Triad is a traditional model of infectious diseases causation, as described previously it consists of an agent, host and environment. The Theory of Reasoned Action is used to explain and predict behavior based on attitudes, norms and intentions. The construct of TRA are: behavioral beliefs, evaluations of behavioral outcomes which leads to attitude, then normative beliefs, motivation to comply which leads to subjective norms.
Metrics details. Yet, little is known about pathways to participation in organized exercise among Hispanics. This study used a reasoned action approach RAA framework to explore beliefs and determinants of organized exercise among Hispanics. Our mixed-methods study was part of a larger pre-post design intervention study. Participants completed an interview containing open- and closed-ended questions to identify salient beliefs and practices about attending organized exercise activities.
Qualitative findings suggest participants value health and the behavioral benefits of attending organized exercise activities; feel approval from family and friends; and identify transportation, time, distance, and costs as factors that influence their attendance to organized exercise activities. Consistent with theoretical expectations, we identified statistically significant determinants of intentions and attendance to organized exercise. Findings can inform the development of persuasive messages and interventions to promote exercise in low-income Hispanic populations facing obesity disparities.
Peer Review reports. Despite the many documented benefits of exercise, Hispanics continue to be less physically active than their White counterparts [ 1 ]. Researchers have found that Hispanics prefer engaging in group-oriented physical activities such as dancing, walking, gardening, and family- and peer-oriented activities [ 3 , 4 ].
One type of group-oriented physical activity is organized exercise, which includes planned or structured group activities, classes or lessons, and team sports performed to improve or maintain physical fitness [ 5 ].
To help promote physical activity in Hispanics, it is important to study determinants and pathways to participation in organized exercise. Researchers have used various health behavior theories to understand personal, behavioral, and environmental factors related to physical activity and exercise behavior. One commonly used theoretical framework to study exercise behavior is a reasoned action approach RAA [ 6 ].
The RAA framework is a particularly relevant perspective to study exercise because of the planned or reasoned aspect of exercise behavior [ 10 ]. This framework proposes that intentions to engage in a behavior are the most immediate determinant of that behavior. In turn, intentions are influenced by attitudes, normative pressure, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control; and each of these constructs is formed by salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that should be elicited from the target population [ 6 , 11 , 12 ].
Evidence about the application of these behavioral theories to study exercise conclude that the most influential constructs to intentions are attitudes and perceived behavioral control [ 13 , 14 ]. Their findings are consistent with a more recent meta-analysis of 72 studies exploring the application of TRA and TPB on physical activity [ 14 ]. Additionally, authors found that self-efficacy and past behavior had a statistically significant influence on intentions, and thus are important constructs to study.
For this reason, our study used an extended version of TPB which incorporated self-efficacy as a predictor of intentions, still under the guidance of a RAA framework. Although many researchers have used theories under the RAA umbrella to explore determinants of exercise behavior [ 15 ], to the best of our knowledge, beliefs and practices about organized exercise have not yet been studied using a RAA framework. Researchers have found differences in determinants of physical activity and exercise among people of diverse ethnic and racial groups [ 16 , 17 ], which lead us to believe that there may also be differences in beliefs and practices of organized exercise among Hispanics.
This is an important area to study because many interventions targeted to Hispanics include organized exercise activities such as dance classes, walking clubs, and others group-based exercise activities conducted in a variety of settings including community and faith organizations [ 17 , 18 , 19 ].
Our study aimed to identify salient beliefs and practices about attending organized exercise activities among cohort participants in Healthy Fit , a program which used community health workers to link community members to services and resources addressing Hispanic health disparities.
We used a mixed-methods study approach. Based on the RAA framework, we hypothesized that attendance to organized exercise activities would be predicted by intentions, and that attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control would be associated with intentions.
This is a mixed-methods study, which is part of a larger pre-post design intervention study, called Healthy Fit [ 20 ]. Community health workers CHWs conducted tomin interviews with each participant, in Spanish or English, to assess different health needs. CHWs obtained informed consent from all participants. Baseline data were collected between and During this period, a total of people participated in the Healthy Fit study see Fig. Of those, Among participants receiving an organized exercise referral, From those who received an organized exercise referral, a randomly selected sub-sample of individuals were asked to complete an organized exercise elicitation questionnaire, described in more detail below.
Flow chart of study participation and analysis shows a number of participants in the larger study. At baseline, all participants completed a socio-demographic survey, including questions regarding their gender, age, marital status, employment status, annual household income, insurance status, and education. Participants who were overweight i. A sub-sample of our baseline participants who received an organized exercise referral were asked to complete an additional elicitation questionnaire.
This questionnaire contained open- and closed-ended questions assessing RAA constructs, and we developed it following theoretical recommendations on how to construct TPB measures [ 11 , 21 ]. This section consisted of eight open-ended questions, such as: 1 how do you feel about the idea of going to organized exercise activities?
Another section of the questionnaire quantitatively assessed RAA constructs: attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy.
Also, at follow up, participants were asked open-ended questions about what they had liked and disliked about attending these organized exercise activities. Following data collection, the first author categorized all open-ended questions by hand [ 11 ]. Following theoretical recommendation for conducting analysis on elicitation study data, she tabulated frequency counts of all responses and classified them by a-priori themes based on belief type: behavioral, normative, and control.
Additionally, we computed scale scores for each RAA measure by calculating the average of non-missing scores for the 6 items assessing attitudes, 3 items assessing subjective norms, 3 items assessing perceived behavioral control, 5 items assessing self-efficacy, and 3 items assessing intentions, as described above. We conducted quantitative analyses using Stata version 13 [ 22 ]. First, we conducted descriptive statistics to assess the distribution of the variables, examined means, standard deviations, and frequencies.
Next, we estimated the range of energy expenditure of the activities reported by participants using the Compendium of Physical Activity [ 23 ].
Lastly, we conducted two separate regression models to identify determinants of organized exercise in our sample.
First, we used a multiple regression model to examine the association between the RAA constructs and intentions, while adjusting for demographic variables. Next, we examined the impact of intentions on behavior, while adjusting for demographic variables. We used a negative binomial model because our outcome variable was over-dispersed [ 24 ].
We used a forward stepwise procedure to select potential socio-demographic covariates. For both models, we used a complete-case analysis approach for handling missing data. In the first model predicting intentions, of the participants selected for RAA questions on organized exercise, we have complete data on In the second model predicting attendance, among the participants with follow-up data, we have complete data on Participants reported attending a variety of organized exercise activities ranging from Zumba to sports like volleyball, soccer, and boxing.
The most commonly reported activity attended was Zumba, estimated at 7. The most salient behavioral advantages reported by participants were that it improves physical health, aids weight loss, and improves motivation to stay fit. The most common reported behavioral disadvantage was time constraints. The most salient normative referents in support of participants engaging in organized exercise activities were family members, including children and spouses.
Most participants reported having no referents against engaging in the behavior, but some reported family members. The most salient control beliefs reported by our participants as barriers to attendance to organized exercise activities included lack of transportation, lack of time, distance, and having no money to pay for gas, parking, or gym fees. The most salient reported facilitators were having free time, having a car, close proximity to activities, having money to pay for fees, and having support from their family.
Inter-correlations between RAA constructs and attendance to organized exercise were all small, and not statistically significant. Inter-correlations between RAA constructs and intentions were all medium to large in magnitude and statistically significant. We calculated the standardized beta coefficients to compare the strengths of coefficients to other variable coefficients in the model.
Results indicated that one standard deviation increase in attitudes yielded a. Those who reported attending organized exercise activities in the past month said they had attended an average of 2 times per week.
When asked what they liked about attending to organized exercise activities in their community, many participants reported that it made them feel good, energized, relaxed, helped improve or maintain their health, lose weight, and meet new people.
Also, many participants said that they liked going to Zumba classes. The RAA framework helped us identify determinants of attendance to organized exercise in a predominantly low-income Hispanic sample on the US-Mexico border.
To our knowledge, no other study had examined the applicability of the RAA framework to predict attendance to organized exercise behavior. These findings are consistent with another study that found attitudes and perceived behavioral control as significant correlates of intentions [ 25 ].
These findings can help researchers develop persuasive messages to promote participation, and design strategies targeting factors that would facilitate engagement in organized exercise. Our results also indicated that subjective norms and self-efficacy had a relatively small and non-significant association with intentions.
This is consistent with findings from other researchers studying Hispanic subpopulations [ 26 ]. After examining constructs from health behavior theories in racial- and ethnically diverse populations, Burke and colleagues [ 27 ] found that norms develop in the context of relational culture, meaning that the formulation of norms depend on the level of connectedness among referent individuals.
Our three-item measure of subjective norms included only one item assessing descriptive norms, and it did not ask about specific referents that were deeply connected to our participants. Perhaps further refinement of our measure would yield an association with intentions. Our qualitative elicitation findings provided valuable insights into the salient beliefs related to organized exercise in a predominantly low-income Hispanic sample.
One study that explored preferences and needs related to leisure-time physical activity among Mexican-Americans found similar results about barriers to participation including lack of motivation, time, money and transportation [ 4 ]. We believe that our findings are particularly relevant since, to date, no other study had captured behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding organized exercise for Hispanic communities of low socioeconomic status facing obesity disparities.
Elicitation findings helped us understand our quantitative findings. Our quantitative measure of self-efficacy assessed mood and affective barriers such as feeling tired, busy, being worried or depressed; however, our elicitation findings suggest some unassessed logistical barriers were relevant for our population including transportation, distance, and costs.
This may explain why we did not find self-efficacy to be significantly associated with intentions. Thus, the elicited beliefs could help develop precise direct and indirect measures of RAA constructs for our population, and potentially contribute to the field measures of RAA constructs specifically developed from beliefs of ethnically diverse populations. Our study has a number of strengths and some important limitations.
A major strength is our examination of culturally-relevant behavioral determinants guided by a RAA theoretical perspective. Given that Hispanics prefer engaging in group-oriented physical activities [ 3 ], our study offers valuable insights into the relevant beliefs and determinants of engagement in organized exercise.
Also, our study can add to the body of knowledge on the applicability of the RAA framework in assessing pathways to organized exercise in Hispanics subpopulations. More work is still needed in this area, and future research should further explore the applicability of the RAA framework and behavioral mechanisms among diverse populations. One study limitation was our modest sample size, largely comprised of females, which can limit the generalizability of our findings.
To substantiate the generalizability of our findings, future studies should examine the utility of the RAA framework with a larger and more diverse sample, possibly with other Hispanic subpopulations. Another limitation had to do with our measure of intentions as a combined standardized score, which may make interpretation of findings related to intentions more difficult. However, we believe that our combined intentions score has good precision and is a better measure of intentions than using any of the three single items alone.
Also, our study did not examine religious and other social ties that could be important variables to study in future research.
Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia based on the theory of reasoned action. Abu Shanab II ; J. Michael Pearson III. Address for correspondence. The theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology has been widely used to explain individuals' behaviour. The theory postulates that individuals' behaviour is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm.
Action Control pp Cite as. There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed e. Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano.
Metrics details. Yet, little is known about pathways to participation in organized exercise among Hispanics. This study used a reasoned action approach RAA framework to explore beliefs and determinants of organized exercise among Hispanics. Our mixed-methods study was part of a larger pre-post design intervention study.
The Islamic rural banks have the potential to grow in Indonesia. The descriptive and structural equation model analyses were used to analyze the data. A random sampling technique is adopted with a sample size of consumers of the Islamic rural banks. The results found that the Sharia system compliance, promotion, services, attitude, subjective norms and intention variables have a significant effect on the use of services at Islamic rural banks. Only product knowledge on Sharia variable has been found to be insignificant. The results are useful as a benchmark for policymakers to improve the establishment of Islamic rural banks particularly in Indonesia. Effendi, I.
In psychology , the theory of planned behavior abbreviated TPB is a theory that links beliefs to behavior. The theory states that there are three core components, namely; attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, which together shape an individual's behavioral intentions. In turn, behavioral intention is assumed to be the most proximal determinant of human social behavior. The concept was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve on the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action by including perceived behavioral control. The theory of planned behavior was proposed by Icek Ajzen through his article "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. The theory of reasoned action was in turn grounded in various theories of attitude such as learning theories , expectancy-value theories , consistency theories such as Heider's balance theory , Osgood and Tannenbaum's congruity theory, and Festinger's dissonance theory and attribution theory. A high correlation of attitudes and subjective norms to behavioral intention, and subsequently to behavior, has been confirmed in many studies.
The theory of planned behavior introduced perceived behavioral control as an additional predictor of intentions. In circumstances where.
The theory of reasoned action TRA or ToRA aims to explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors within human action. It is mainly used to predict how individuals will behave based on their pre-existing attitudes and behavioral intentions. An individual's decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior. Developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen in , the theory derived from previous research in social psychology , persuasion models, and attitude theories.
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