File Name: maslow 1954 motivation and personality .zip
As a leader, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and others, whose support you need in order to accomplish your objectives. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and motivate them. To understand and motivate people, you must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings.
Citation: Huitt, W. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Return to: Conative Domain Courses Home. Abraham Maslow attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation. Prior to Maslow , researchers generally focused separately on such factors as biology, achievement, or power to explain what energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior. Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs.
Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level. Once each of these needs has been satisfied, if at some future time a deficiency is detected, the individual will act to remove the deficiency.
The first four levels are:. According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met. Maslow's initial conceptualization included only one growth need--self-actualization. Self-actualized people are characterized by: 1 being problem-focused; 2 incorporating an ongoing freshness of appreciation of life; 3 a concern about personal growth; and 4 the ability to have peak experiences.
They are:. Maslow's basic position is that as one becomes more self-actualized and self-transcendent , one becomes more wise develops wisdom and automatically knows what to do in a wide variety of situations. Daniels suggested that Maslow's ultimate conclusion that the highest levels of self-actualization are transcendent in their nature may be one of his most important contributions to the study of human behavior and motivation.
Norwood proposed that Maslow's hierarchy can be used to describe the kinds of information individual's seek at different levels of development. For example, individuals at the lowest level seek coping information in order to meet their basic needs. Information that is not directly connected to helping a person meet his or her needs in a very short time span is simply left unattended.
Individuals at the safety level need helping information. They seek to be assisted in seeing how they can be safe and secure. Enlightening information is sought by individuals seeking to meet their belongingness needs. Quite often this can be found in books or other materials on relationship development. Empowering information is sought by people at the esteem level.
They are looking for information on how their egos can be developed. Finally, people in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization seek edifying information. While Norwood does not specifically address the level of transcendence, I believe it is safe to say that individuals at this stage would seek information on how to connect to something beyond themselves or to how others could be edified.
Maslow published his first conceptualization of his theory over 50 years ago Maslow, and it has since become one of the most popular and often cited theories of human motivation. James hypothesized the levels of material physiological, safety , social belongingness, esteem , and spiritual. Mathes proposed the three levels were physiological, belonginess, and self-actualization; he considered security and self-esteem as unwarranted. Alderfer developed a comparable hierarchy with his ERG existence, relatedness, and growth theory.
His approach modified Maslow's theory based on the work of Gordon Allport , who incorporated concepts from systems theory into his work on personality. While a variety of personality dimensions might be considered as related to motivational needs, one of the most often cited is that of introversion and extroversion. This organization suggests there may be two aspects of each level that differentiate how people relate to each set of needs with different personalities relating more to one dimension than the other.
At this point there is little agreement about the identification of basic human needs and how they are ordered. Thompson, Grace and Cohen state the most important needs for children are connection, recognition, and power. Nohria, Lawrence, and Wilson provide evidence from a sociobiology theory of motivation that humans have four basic needs: 1 acquire objects and experiences; 2 bond with others in long-term relationships of mutual care and commitment; 3 learn and make sense of the world and of ourselves; and 4 to defend ourselves, our loved ones, beliefs and resources from harm.
The Institute for Management Excellence suggests there are nine basic human needs: 1 security, 2 adventure, 3 freedom, 4 exchange, 5 power, 6 expansion, 7 acceptance, 8 community, and 9 expression. Notice that bonding and relatedness are a component of every theory.
However, there do not seem to be any others that are mentioned by all theorists. Franken suggests this lack of accord may be a result of different philosophies of researchers rather than differences among human beings.
In addition, he reviews research that shows a person's explanatory or attributional style will modify the list of basic needs. Therefore, it seems appropriate to ask people what they want and how their needs could be met rather than relying on an unsupported theory.
For example, Waitley advises having a person imagine what life would be like if time and money were not an object in a person's life. That is, what would the person do this week, this month, next month, if he or she had all the money and time needed to engage in the activities and were secure that both would be available again next year.
With some follow-up questions to identify what is keeping the person from engaging in these activities at the present time, this open-ended approach is likely to identify the most important needs of the individual. There is much work still to be done in this area before we can rely on a theory to be more informative than simply collecting and analyzing data. However, this body of research can be very important to parents, educators, administrators and others concerned with developing and using human potential.
Huitt's " Becoming a Brilliant Star " framework is intended to provide a framework to discuss the needs of children and youth across three core elements and ten domains. Copyright and other intellectual property laws protect these materials. Reproduction or retransmission of the materials, in whole or in part, in any manner, without the prior written consent of the copyright holder, is a violation of copyright law.
Impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment. Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as a human being. Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, under- standing, and influence are elements. Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires. When divided among people one person's gain is another's loss if resources are limited.
Self-Actualization development of competencies [knowledge, attitudes, and skills] and character. Transcendence assisting in the development of others' competencies and character; relationships to the unknown, unknowable. Personal identification with group, significant others Belongingness. Physiological, biological including basic emotional needs.
In he became head of the psychology department at Brandeis University Waltham, Massachusetts , where he remained until In his major works, Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of Being , Maslow argued that each person has a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied, ranging from basic physiological requirements to love, esteem, and, finally, self-actualization. As each need is satisfied, the next higher level in the emotional hierarchy dominates conscious functioning. Maslow believed that truly healthy people were self-actualizers because they satisfied the highest psychological needs, fully integrating the components of their personality , or self. Abraham Maslow Article Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Citation: Huitt, W. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Return to: Conative Domain Courses Home. Abraham Maslow attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation. Prior to Maslow , researchers generally focused separately on such factors as biology, achievement, or power to explain what energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior.
For example, Murray tried to list every possible need, while Edwards devised a measure of the 16 most important needs. Such listings have two problems: the lists have too many needs and there is no conceptual or theoretical basis for them. Maslow proposed that there are five basic human needs forming a hierarchy: physiological, safety and security, belongingness, esteem self-esteem and esteem from others , and self-actualization. These five needs are in a hierarchy for three reasons. First, when deprived, the lower need takes precedence a potency basis. For example, if you are very hungry, the other needs become less important.
Abraham Maslow was a US psychologist and behavioural scientist. Kaplan and the Archives of the History of American Psychology. McKenzie, Donald I.
Home Forum Login. Download PDF. Problem Centering vs. Means Centering in Science Il 3. Preface to Motivation Theory 19 4. A Theory ofh uman Motivation 35 5.
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