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List of ebooks and manuels about Elements of fuel furnaces and refractories by op gupta.
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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be. ISBN The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Published by Asoke K. Solid FuelsCoal and Coke 2. Liquid Fuels 3. Gaseous Fuels 4. Combustion of Fuels 5. Furnaces and its Accessories 6.
Refractories 7. Heat Transfer and Energy Management 8. Furnace Atmosphere Control and Environmental Issues 9. Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories Indian Scenario The knowledge of these subjects is necessary for understanding various phenomena of extractive metallurgy ferrous and non- ferrous.
The fuels are used as energy source in various metallurgical operations e. The furnaces serve as a unit to perform various metallurgical operations, where the refractory lining renders furnaces to operate at elevated temperatures. Thus, fuels, furnaces and refractories play important role in many metallurgical activities.
The importance of these subjects could be realised by the fact that many important metallurgical operations have undergone radical changes due to the availability of fuel at given time.
The most classical example is iron making. In early 19th century, the iron was produced in blast furnaces using wood char.
Later, the non-availability of wood char led to the use of coke in the blast furnaces, which is being used even today. In the mid of 20th century, it was realised that coke may not be available in future due to limited global reserve of coking coals. This led to the development of DRI technology using coal and natural gas in the mid of 20th century.
At the end of 20th century, it was felt that solid DRI produced may not get sufficient electrical power in future to melt it, and this led to the development of smelting reduction SR technology of making hot iron which is still under development. In the early 21st century, excessive use of fossil fuels coal, coke, natural gas causing global warming germinated the thought of making iron using eco-friendly fuels like wood char and hydrogen. This book, divided into ten chapters, is presented to cover the entire syllabus of the subject.
The useful data, bibliography and subject index are provided at the end of the book. This book would also be useful to plant managers and research scientists in knowing the fundamentals and test procedures. The author would welcome suggestions from the enlightened readers to further improve the text in its next edition.
The author would welcome views by email rcgupta. I am personally thankful to Pandit Malaviyaji for transforming my business-oriented family into a group of teachers through personal public invitation picked up by my father in s to study at BHU.
I am thankful to Late Professor S. Dixit Fuel Technologist for teaching me and laying fundamentals during my undergraduate study at BHU — I am also thankful to Late Professor T. I had the privilege to teach this course for many years. I am further thankful to my students, fellow colleagues and laboratory staffs, who co-operated with me in discharging my responsibility as teacher and laboratory in-charge over this long period. I am grateful to Late Professor Bhanu Prakash for inspiring me and providing help and encouragement during my academic career in learning various practical aspects of fuel technology and extractive metallurgy.
Writing this book was a time consuming process, and it was possible to complete it in two years due to sustained care taken by my loving wife Smt. Asha Gupta. She had to bear with my odd working schedule forgoing many of her programs. I shall remain thankful to her forever. Introduction The metallurgical industries need fuels, furnaces and refractories as essential requirement.
The fuels are needed as a source of heat energy to meet various thermal requirements of the metallurgical operations, carried out in a furnace which is lined by suitable refractory to sustain the temperature of metallurgical operation. The substances having carbon, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, etc. However, all substances having hydrocarbons cannot be called as fuel. In this definition of fuel, there are three conditions which are needed to qualify a combustible substance to be designated as fuel, viz.
The first condition refers to its utility. The energy released by combustion must be sufficient enough to be utilised. The green water hyacinth does not qualify to be called as fuel, since it contains more than 90 per cent water. The second condition is the efficiency of combustion of the material and recovery of its thermal energy for some application.
Some material may be combustible in nature but combustion process may be such too slow or too fast which may have difficulty in its utilisation. Thirdly, the amount of energy obtained must be economical to use. In some cases, the cost of combustible material may be more than the value of heat energy obtained which would disqualify it to be termed as fuel. As an example, the paper is combustible material, but it is an expensive material for using as fuel.
The primary and secondary sources for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, classified as renewable and non-renewable fossil fuel, are given in Table 1. Table 1. Renewable Wood Wood charcoal Wood refuse saw dust, shavings, fuel trimming, etc. Liquid Non- Petroleum Petrol, solvent spirit, kerosene, Coal carbonisation by-products during renewable crude oil diesel, furnace oil, naphtha, coal tar coke making e. Renewable Hydrogen in Hydrogen Sewage gas fuel water. Gas Non- Natural fossil Producer gas, water gas, coal gas, Blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, LD renewable gas oil gas, reformed natural gas, steel gas, COREX gas, oil refinery gas fossil fuel butane, propane, acetylene, hydrogen.
The fuels are required at every step in the metallurgical process. However, every type of metallurgical operation needs specific type of fuel which will be discussed in this text. It may be noted that each fuel given in Table 1. The metal making process uses different routes to extract metal from its ores. Thus, fuels are required for metal extraction from their ores.
The extracted metals are given shape by processes like casting, rolling, forging, extrusion, etc. In case of electrical heating, the electricity is generated by thermal power plants mainly using coal as a fuel, though liquid and gaseous fuels are used by some plants.
The suitably-shaped metals are given heat-treatment to generate required micro-structural features in the metal rendering suitable mechanical properties for use.
Thus, we find that fuel is needed at every step in the metallurgical process, and it becomes an essential raw material for any metal industry. The fuel acts, as a reluctant in some processes to facilitate the chemical reaction in addition to meeting the thermal needs by combustion process. In some processes, fuel provides only thermal energy. The thermal energy obtained mostly by fossil coal in power plants gets converted into electrical energy to be used by processing systems of the metallurgical plants.
This electrical energy is also needed during elctro- metallurgical methods of metal production. The use of different types of fuels by some major metallurgical plants is given in Table 1. Cast iron cupola foundry — Coke Diesel, — — furnace oil. Aluminum industry Non-coking coal for — Diesel, — Producer gas power furnace oil. Copper extraction — — Diesel, — — furnace oil. Heat treatment plants — — Diesel, — Producer gas furnace oil.
Re-rolling units — — Diesel, — Producer gas furnace oil. It can be, thus, noted that all metallurgical units use fuel in the form of solid, liquid and gas.
The coking coal is used to make metallurgical coke for blast furnace iron making and melting cast iron in cupola. The dolochar generated in coal DRI plants is used to generate power. The liquid fuels like diesels and furnace oil are practically used by every metallurgical unit. The diesel is used for emergency power generation, and furnace oil is used in furnace for heating applications.
The natural gas is useful only for gas-based DRI plants, to be used as reductant after its reformation to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon-monoxide. The waste gases like blast furnace gas and coke oven gas are used for heating purposes within the plants. The producer gas plant serves to provide heating gas in emergent conditions. In view of wide range of work conditions, the furnace type may look different from one another.
The technique of heat transfer and thermal efficiencies of such furnaces may also be quite different. The word furnace is derived from Latin word fornax.
In view of this, a furnace will have following features: a Furnace name: The furnace has a name to identify its features necessary for performing some processes. In practice, there are many furnaces which have their own characteristic features which make them different from one another. The list of such furnaces could be very long, however, Table 1.
Coke oven Coke making — Coal V. Blast furnace Pig iron making — Coke Tall shaft. This classification could be based on parameters listed in Section 1. The furnaces grouped on the basis of some of these parameters are given as follows. Energy source Energy is an important basis to group the furnaces. The use of energy is based on its availability and need.
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List of ebooks and manuels about Element of fuels furnaces and refractories by o p gupta. Gupta : elements of fuels, furnaces and Refractories, Khanna Publishers Testing of refractories. Fuels, furnaces and refractories by O. Gupta References: 1. Gupta ,Khanna Publishers. T o conduct proximate analysis of Coal.
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И он согласился поехать. - Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ.
Он перезагрузил монитор, надеясь, что все дело в каком-то мелком сбое.
Двадцать миллионов? - повторил он с притворным ужасом. - Это уму непостижимо. - Я видел алгоритм. Уверяю вас, он стоит этих денег.
Информация, которую он выдал… Она резко подняла голову. Возможно ли. Информация, которую он выдал.
Перед глазами возникло ее гибкое тело, темные загорелые бедра, приемник, который она включала на всю громкость, слушая томную карибскую музыку. Он улыбнулся. Может, заскочить на секунду, когда просмотрю эти отчеты. Бринкерхофф взял первую распечатку. ШИФРОВАЛКА - ПРОИЗВОДИТЕЛЬНОСТЬРАСХОДЫ Настроение его сразу же улучшилось.
Fuels,Furnaces and Refractories by O. P. Gupta. R.C. Sharma, Principle of Heat Treatment of Steel, New Age Publishers. 2. V. Singh, Heat nebraskansforjustice.org
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Стратмор закрыл лицо руками. - Хорошо. Это на нижнем этаже.
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Все равно расскажите. ГЛАВА 15 Сьюзан Флетчер расположилась за компьютерным терминалом Третьего узла. Этот узел представлял собой звуконепроницаемую уединенную камеру, расположенную неподалеку от главного зала.
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В нескольких милях от этого места человек в очках в железной оправе сидел на заднем сиденье фиата, мчавшегося по проселочной дороге. - Клуб Колдун, - повторил он, напомнив таксисту место назначения. Водитель кивнул, с любопытством разглядывая пассажира в зеркало заднего вида.
Сначала это напомнило сокращение мышцы чуть повыше бедра, затем появилось ощущение чего-то влажного и липкого.
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