File Name: medicinal plants and uses .zip
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Ross now comprehensively documents in Volume 3 the medicinal value of 16 major plant species widely used around the world in medical formulations.
Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified.
However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety. The earliest historical records of herbs are found from the Sumerian civilisation, where hundreds of medicinal plants including opium are listed on clay tablets.
The Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt , c. The Greek physician Dioscorides , who worked in the Roman army, documented over recipes for medicines using over medicinal plants in De materia medica , c.
Drug research makes use of ethnobotany to search for pharmacologically active substances in nature, and has in this way discovered hundreds of useful compounds. These include the common drugs aspirin , digoxin , quinine , and opium. The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes: alkaloids , glycosides , polyphenols , and terpenes.
Medicinal plants are widely used in non-industrialized societies, mainly because they are readily available and cheaper than modern medicines. Medicinal plants face both general threats, such as climate change and habitat destruction , and the specific threat of over-collection to meet market demand. Plants, including many now used as culinary herbs and spices , have been used as medicines, not necessarily effectively, from prehistoric times.
Spices have been used partly to counter food spoilage bacteria, especially in hot climates,   and especially in meat dishes which spoil more readily.
For instance, a 60 year-old Neanderthal burial site, " Shanidar IV ", in northern Iraq has yielded large amounts of pollen from eight plant species, seven of which are used now as herbal remedies. The mushroom was probably used against whipworm. In ancient Sumeria , hundreds of medicinal plants including myrrh and opium are listed on clay tablets.
The ancient Egyptian Ebers Papyrus lists over plant medicines such as aloe , cannabis , castor bean , garlic , juniper , and mandrake. The book remained the authoritative reference on herbalism for over years, into the seventeenth century. In the Early Middle Ages , Benedictine monasteries preserved medical knowledge in Europe , translating and copying classical texts and maintaining herb gardens.
Among many works on medicinal plants, Abulcasis — of Cordoba wrote The Book of Simples , and Ibn al-Baitar — recorded hundreds of medicinal herbs such as Aconitum , nux vomica , and tamarind in his Corpus of Simples. The Early Modern period saw the flourishing of illustrated herbals across Europe, starting with the Grete Herball.
Medicinal herbs arriving in the Americas included garlic, ginger, and turmeric; coffee, tobacco and coca travelled in the other direction.
The place of plants in medicine was radically altered in the 19th century by the application of chemical analysis. Alkaloids were isolated from a succession of medicinal plants, starting with morphine from the poppy in , and soon followed by ipecacuanha and strychnos in , quinine from the cinchona tree, and then many others. As chemistry progressed, additional classes of pharmacologically active substances were discovered in medicinal plants.
Synthesis of a substance first discovered in a medicinal plant began with salicylic acid in Medicinal plants are used with the intention of maintaining health, to be administered for a specific condition, or both, whether in modern medicine or in traditional medicine. In modern medicine, around a quarter [a] of the drugs prescribed to patients are derived from medicinal plants, and they are rigorously tested.
The World Health Organization formulated a policy on traditional medicine in , and since then has published guidelines for them, with a series of monographs on widely used herbal medicines.
Medicinal plants may provide three main kinds of benefit: health benefits to the people who consume them as medicines; financial benefits to people who harvest, process, and distribute them for sale; and society-wide benefits, such as job opportunities, taxation income, and a healthier labour force.
All plants produce chemical compounds which give them an evolutionary advantage, such as defending against herbivores or, in the example of salicylic acid , as a hormone in plant defenses. The alkaloids are bitter-tasting and toxic, and concentrated in the parts of the plant such as the stem most likely to be eaten by herbivores; they may also protect against parasites.
Modern knowledge of medicinal plants is being systematised in the Medicinal Plant Transcriptomics Database, which by provided a sequence reference for the transcriptome of some thirty species. Alkaloids are bitter-tasting chemicals, very widespread in nature, and often toxic, found in many medicinal plants. Medicines of different classes include atropine , scopolamine , and hyoscyamine all from nightshade ,  the traditional medicine berberine from plants such as Berberis and Mahonia , [b] caffeine Coffea , cocaine Coca , ephedrine Ephedra , morphine opium poppy , nicotine tobacco , [c] reserpine Rauvolfia serpentina , quinidine and quinine Cinchona , vincamine Vinca minor , and vincristine Catharanthus roseus.
The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the alkaloids morphine and codeine. The alkaloid nicotine from tobacco binds directly to the body's Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors , accounting for its pharmacological effects.
Deadly nightshade , Atropa belladonna , yields tropane alkaloids including atropine , scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Anthraquinone glycosides are found in medicinal plants such as rhubarb , cascara , and Alexandrian senna. The cardiac glycosides are powerful drugs from medicinal plants including foxglove and lily of the valley. They include digoxin and digitoxin which support the beating of the heart, and act as diuretics. Senna alexandrina , containing anthraquinone glycosides , has been used as a laxative for millennia.
The foxglove , Digitalis purpurea , contains digoxin , a cardiac glycoside. The plant was used on heart conditions long before the glycoside was identified. Digoxin is used to treat atrial fibrillation , atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure. Polyphenols of several classes are widespread in plants, having diverse roles in defenses against plant diseases and predators. Many polyphenolic extracts, such as from grape seeds , olives or maritime pine bark , are sold as dietary supplements and cosmetics without proof or legal health claims for beneficial health effects.
Angelica , containing phytoestrogens , has long been used for gynaecological disorders. Polyphenols include phytoestrogens top and middle , mimics of animal estrogen bottom. Terpenes and terpenoids of many kinds are found in a variety of medicinal plants,  and in resinous plants such as the conifers. They are strongly aromatic and serve to repel herbivores. Their scent makes them useful in essential oils , whether for perfumes such as rose and lavender , or for aromatherapy.
The essential oil of common thyme Thymus vulgaris , contains the monoterpene thymol , an antiseptic and antifungal. Thymol is one of many terpenes found in plants. Medicinal plants demand intensive management. Different species each require their own distinct conditions of cultivation. The World Health Organization recommends the use of rotation to minimise problems with pests and plant diseases.
Cultivation may be traditional or may make use of conservation agriculture practices to maintain organic matter in the soil and to conserve water, for example with no-till farming systems.
Medicinal plants are often tough and fibrous, requiring some form of preparation to make them convenient to administer. According to the Institute for Traditional Medicine, common methods for the preparation of herbal medicines include decoction , powdering, and extraction with alcohol, in each case yielding a mixture of substances. Decoction involves crushing and then boiling the plant material in water to produce a liquid extract that can be taken orally or applied topically.
Alcohol extraction involves soaking the plant material in cold wine or distilled spirit to form a tincture. Traditional poultices were made by boiling medicinal plants, wrapping them in a cloth, and applying the resulting parcel externally to the affected part of the body.
When modern medicine has identified a drug in a medicinal plant, commercial quantities of the drug may either be synthesised or extracted from plant material, yielding a pure chemical. Plant medicines are in wide use around the world.
As of , most products made from medicinal plants had not been tested for their safety and efficacy, and products that were marketed in developed economies and provided in the undeveloped world by traditional healers were of uneven quality, sometimes containing dangerous contaminants.
Drugs derived from plants including opiates, cocaine and cannabis have both medical and recreational uses. Different countries have at various times made use of illegal drugs , partly on the basis of the risks involved in taking psychoactive drugs.
Plant medicines have often not been tested systematically, but have come into use informally over the centuries.
A phylogenetic study built a family tree down to genus level using 20, species to compare the medicinal plants of three regions, Nepal, New Zealand and the South African Cape. It discovered that the species used traditionally to treat the same types of condition belonged to the same groups of plants in all three regions, giving a "strong phylogenetic signal".
The World Health Organization WHO has been coordinating a network called the International Regulatory Cooperation for Herbal Medicines to try to improve the quality of medical products made from medicinal plants and the claims made for them.
WHO has set out a strategy for traditional medicines  with four objectives: to integrate them as policy into national healthcare systems; to provide knowledge and guidance on their safety, efficacy, and quality; to increase their availability and affordability; and to promote their rational, therapeutically sound usage.
The pharmaceutical industry has roots in the apothecary shops of Europe in the s, where pharmacists provided local traditional medicines to customers, which included extracts like morphine, quinine, and strychnine. Hundreds of compounds have been identified using ethnobotany , investigating plants used by indigenous peoples for possible medical applications. As a result, phytochemicals have frequently proven unsuitable as lead compounds in drug discovery. The pharmaceutical industry has remained interested in mining traditional uses of medicinal plants in its drug discovery efforts.
Plant medicines can cause adverse effects and even death, whether by side-effects of their active substances, by adulteration or contamination, by overdose, or by inappropriate prescription. Many such effects are known, while others remain to be explored scientifically. There is no reason to presume that because a product comes from nature it must be safe: the existence of powerful natural poisons like atropine and nicotine shows this to be untrue.
Further, the high standards applied to conventional medicines do not always apply to plant medicines, and dose can vary widely depending on the growth conditions of plants: older plants may be much more toxic than young ones, for instance.
Pharmacologically active plant extracts can interact with conventional drugs, both because they may provide an increased dose of similar compounds, and because some phytochemicals interfere with the body's systems that metabolise drugs in the liver including the cytochrome P system, making the drugs last longer in the body and have a more powerful cumulative effect. Herbal medicine and dietary supplement products have been criticized as not having sufficient standards or scientific evidence to confirm their contents, safety, and presumed efficacy.
Where medicinal plants are harvested from the wild rather than cultivated, they are subject to both general and specific threats. General threats include climate change and habitat loss to development and agriculture. A specific threat is over-collection to meet rising demand for medicines. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Plants or derivatives used to treat medical conditions in humans or animals. Further information: History of herbalism and History of pharmacy.
Further information: Pharmacognosy. Further information: Phytochemistry. Further information: Alkaloids. Further information: Glycosides. Further information: Polyphenol.
Further information: Health effects of polyphenols. Further information: Terpenes. Main articles: Herbalism and List of plants used in herbalism.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book is designed to provide pharmacologists and researchers of natural products a comprehensive review of medicinal plants, their vernacular names in various languages and their medicinal uses around the world, and in some cases, a historical perspective. Chemical constituents of each plant with the putative active constituent, and available up to date pharmacological studies until on PubMed with each medical activity explored and its relationship with traditional uses, are described for each plant. Any variations in chemical constituents and their effects on pharmacological studies outcome have been highlighted. All clinical trials conducted, with sufficient details, have been included. Nationalities and racial identities of participants of clinical trials are identified to impress upon the social, cultural and dietary influences on the clinical outcomes.
Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. Ever since ancient times, in search for rescue for their disease, the people looked for drugs in nature. Until the advent of iatrochemistry in 16th century, plants had been the source of treatment and prophylaxis.
PDF | On Oct 24, , Cumali Keskin published Medicinal Plants and their Traditional Uses | Find, read and cite all the research you need on.
Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. It is the use of plants for medicinal purposes, and the study of such uses. Now a days, herb refers to any part of the plant like fruit, seed, stem, bark, flower, leaf, stigma or a root, as well as a non-woody plant.
From Reviews of Earlier Volumes Large public libraries and academic libraries This addition to the series is highly recommended for academic health sciences libraries, botanical libraries, and larger hospital and public libraries. Collections in support of public health, nutrition, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and ethnomedicine would also benefit from the inclusion of this title.
Here are some common medicinal herbs. Most herbs have not been completely tested to see how well they work or to see if they interact with other herbs, supplements, medicines, or foods. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions.
This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination.
ГЛАВА 6 Хотя Энсей Танкадо еще не родился, когда шла Вторая мировая война, он тщательно изучал все, что было о ней написано, - особенно о кульминации войны, атомном взрыве, в огне которого сгорело сто тысяч его соотечественников. Хиросима, 6 августа 1945 года, 8. 15 утра. Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы. С этим Танкадо сумел примириться. Но он не смог примириться с тем, что этот взрыв лишил его возможности познакомиться с собственной матерью.
Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы. Мысли ее вернулись к Дэвиду.
Выключив паяльник, он отложил в сторону фонарик и некоторое время отдыхал, лежа под большим стационарным компьютером. Затекшая шея причиняла ему сильную боль. Такая работа была непростой, особенно для человека его комплекции. И они делают их все более и более миниатюрными, - подумал. Прикрыв глаза, давая им долгожданный отдых, он вдруг почувствовал, что кто-то тянет его за ногу.
Сердце у Сьюзан бешено забилось. Правильно ли она поняла. Все сказанное было вполне в духе Грега Хейла.
Такие перестановки - стандартный прием. Танкадо знал, что вы испробуете различные варианты, пока не наткнетесь на что-нибудь подходящее. NDAKOTA - слишком простое изменение. - Возможно, - сказал Стратмор, потом нацарапал несколько слов на бумажке и протянул ее Сьюзан.
Поэтому я хочу узнать мнение специалиста. - Что ж, - сказал Джабба, - мне неприятно первым тебя разочаровать, но твои данные неверны. - Ты так думаешь.
Она достала из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула. Беккер увидел в ее руке сережку в виде черепа. - Так это клипса.
Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно. Изначальный план состоял в том, чтобы сделать это незаметно и позволить Танкадо продать пароль.
Беккер заговорил по-испански с сильным франко-американским акцентом: - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер. Я из канадского посольства. Наш гражданин был сегодня доставлен в вашу больницу. Я хотел бы получить информацию о нем, с тем чтобы посольство могло оплатить его лечение.
Она оказалась бессмысленной, потому что он ввел задание в неверной последовательности, но ведь Следопыт работал. Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта. Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов.
- Это. Теперь все в порядке. Сьюзан не могла унять дрожь.
Это файл высочайшей сложности.
Чуть впереди, у остановки, притормозил городской автобус. Беккер поднял. Дверцы автобуса открылись, но из него никто не вышел. Дизельный двигатель взревел, набирая обороты, и в тот момент, когда автобус уже готов был тронуться, из соседнего бара выскочили трое молодых людей.
Это. - Si. Беккер попросил дать ему картонную коробку, и лейтенант отправился за. Был субботний вечер, и севильский морг не работал. Молодой лейтенант пустил туда Беккера по распоряжению севильской гвардии - похоже, у этого приезжего американца имелись влиятельные друзья.
ВР! - крикнула Соши, усаживаясь за компьютер в задней части комнаты. На стене ожила связанная с компьютером диаграмма. Сьюзан рассеянно подняла на нее глаза, безучастная к царившему вокруг нее безумию. Все в комнате дружно повернули головы.
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