File Name: assimilation and contrast effects in reactions to communication and attitude change .zip
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For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories see The study of attitudes has been approached with varying emphases and methods during most of this century. Prior to World War II, the emphasis was on definition issues and attitude measurement. Most studies were of a survey nature and provided important correlational findings, but little insight into causality. This changed dramatically during World War H. Attitude change was an important topic of Army-sponsored research see 1.
Based on these communications, people form and adapt their opinions. But how does this work? In this study, we want to address this basic question, focusing especially on the content and the form of opinions and using empirical evidence and agent-based modeling ABM to analyze a part of the big picture of social interaction. We based our investigation on models of continuous opinion dynamics under bounded confidence Deffuant et al. This repeated averaging occurs within the context of bounded confidence, by which agents only interact if they are close in opinion to each other.
The assimilation effect, assimilation bias or biased assimilation is a bias in evaluative judgments towards the position of a context stimulus , while contrast effects describe a negative correlation between a judgment and contextual information. Francis Bacon — is quoted to have written "The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion The classic Stanford University experiment involved supporters and opponents of the death penalty. After showing participants a study that concluded it deterred crime and another suggesting the opposite, they rated the study contradicting their beliefs as poor quality and not persuasive, so that the information resulted in more attitude polarization. In it has been defined as a bias in evaluative judgments towards the position of a context stimulus. Assimilation effects are more likely when the context stimulus and the target stimulus have characteristics that are quite close to each other.
Social judgment theory SJT is a self-persuasion theory proposed by Carolyn Sherif , Muzafer Sherif , and Carl Hovland ,  defined by Sherif and Sherif as the perception and evaluation of an idea by comparing it with current attitudes. According to this theory, an individual weighs every new idea, comparing it with the individual's present point of view to determine where it should be placed on the attitude scale  in an individual's mind. SJT is the subconscious sorting out of ideas that occurs at the instant of perception. Social judgment theory is a framework that studies human judgment. It is a meta-theory that directs research on cognitive perspective, which is how you perceive the situations.
A theory of judgement and attitude change according to which a judge's initial judgement or attitude acts as an anchor, so that items of information or persuasive communications that are not very discrepant from the anchor and that therefore fall within the person's latitude of acceptance are assimilated, the person's judgement or attitude changing in the direction of the communication, whereas items of information or persuasive communications that are highly discrepant produce either minimal change if they fall within the person's latitude of neutrality or produce contrast effects if they fall within the latitude of rejection , the person's judgement or attitude changing in the opposite direction. Attitudes associated with high ego involvement tend to have narrow latitudes of acceptance and wide latitudes of rejection, and the reverse applies to attitudes of low ego involvement. A consequence of this theory is that an extreme and ego-involving judgement or attitude tends to be polarized to become even more extreme in response to most types of information or persuasive communications.
Contemporary psychology does not question the existence of psychological processes that operate outside human conscious awareness, such as implicit stereotypes Greenwald and Banaji, ; Nosek et al. Most data showing implicit affective stimuli influence on evaluative judgments, come from experiments conducted in an affective priming paradigm. The paradigm was introduced by Murphy and Zajonc who presented evidence for the existence of unconscious primary affect Zajonc, and its influence on cognition. In their original experiments they presented neutral target stimuli for example Chinese ideographs , which were preceded by either 1-s or 4-ms exposures of photographs of faces expressing either positive or negative emotions.
Anchoring effects in impression formation were studied as a function of distance between anchor and test stimulus, and differentiation of judge. Results uniformly lacked support for a perceptual assimilation-contrast approach to context effects in that contrast was not associated with either greater distance between anchor and test or maximum differentiation of judge. Consistent assimilation, or positive context effects, were supportive of an averaging model analysis of context effects in impression formation. Download to read the full article text. Component ratings in impression formation. Psychonomic Science, , 6, — Google Scholar.
In sales, a common promotional tactic is to supplement a required purchase i. The present research examines the contextual factors driving consumer evaluations of the supplementary product after the promotion has been terminated. Two experiments are used to demonstrate that consumers use multiple anchors to determine the value of a supplementary product. Consumers use other types of price information, such as the internal reference price IRP , promotional price, and original price of the supplementary product, as anchors to adjust their willingness to pay. Price information, such as the promotional and original price of the supplementary product, which is higher lower than the IRP, will increase decrease the willingness to pay.
Как и большинство талантливых программистов, Танкада сделался объектом настойчивого внимания со стороны АНБ. От него не ускользнула ирония ситуации: он получал возможность работать в самом сердце правительства страны, которую поклялся ненавидеть до конца своих дней. Энсей решил пойти на собеседование. Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее. Танкадо прошел проверку на полиграф-машине и пережил пять недель интенсивного психологического тестирования.
comparison standard for the target stimuli, and contrast effect will be invited or when people change their judgment standards according to their current evaluating affect and cognition are important properties of attitudes, (Crites et al., ), Similar assimilation effects also occur in communication and social judgment.
И не отдали кольцо. - Мне много чего нужно, мистер Беккер, но неприятности точно не нужны. Кроме того, тот старик вроде бы обо всем позаботился. - Канадец. - Да.
Человек, с которым он вступил в контакт, Северная Дакота, не звонил. Проклятые американцы. Никакого представления о пунктуальности.
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