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Inductive And Deductive Method In Social Research Pdf

inductive and deductive method in social research pdf

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Theories structure and inform social work research.

A thirty students sample was taken from six Government elementary schools and divided them into two groups, one was experimental and the second was control group. This article offers a brief introduction to some inductive teaching strategies, and how to implement them in class. It is a method of verification. Inductive reasoning is more of a bottom-up approach, moving from the more specific to the more general, in which we make specific observations, detect patterns, formulate hypotheses and draw conclusions. However, both approaches are useful as they are meant to be applied in different sets of circumstances.

Inductive and deductive approaches to research

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Kaikubad Ali. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Geographers around the world are adding new dimensions to the field of geographic knowledge.

Researches in the field of geography, along with other science and social science subjects, are accomplished through certain approaches.

As research encompasses with the philosophy, inductive and deductive reasoning are the two kinds of logic, which are used in the field of research to develop the hypothesis, so as to arrive at a conclusion, on the basis of information, which is believed to be true.

Both inductive and deductive approaches are widely used in researches in every branches of knowledge. Here the discussion is focused on the importance of the inductive and deductive approaches in geographical researches. Deductive Approach: Deductive approach requires the researcher to work from general to specific. The study of the specific phenomenon is done in relation to the general established laws and theories. In this approach the researcher or group of researchers start the work with deciding theory for fulfilling the research objectives.

Then the theory is narrowed down to more specific hypothesis for testing. To test the hypothesis observation is made which is done after collecting and analyzing data and relevant information. Testing the hypothesis helps the researcher to draw conclusion and make confirmation whether to accept or to reject the hypothesis. This justifies the existing theory and its validity. Fig: Deductive Approach in Research For example, if a researcher seeks to enquire about the role of education in poverty in a region, he would first look for the existing theories related to poverty.

Then he will narrow down his research interest to hypothesis as low level of education results in high level of poverty. Then the researcher makes field observation and collects data for analysis.

After analyzing the information the researcher tests the hypothesis, whether it is true or false to the ground. The main characteristics of deductive approach are as follows: 1. Deductive approach is aimed at testing the existing theories. This is a continuous process from which the theories based on social, cultural changes need to be re-examined. This method is simple but much more confined to predetermined theory.

This approach is believed to be scientific and well managed. Conclusion follows logically from the available facts and can be generalized. Inductive Approach: Inductive approach is just opposite of the deductive one. When particular examples are used to reach a general conclusion about something the approach is considered to be inductive.

In this approach empirical observation plays a vital role and the study begins with the scientific observation of the specific phenomenon. The researcher or group of researchers collects individual scattered facts, condition or process through filed study. Then similarities and patterns are analyzed among the individual phenomenon to prove the tentative hypothesis scientifically in order or sequence.

The phenomena are tested regarding to their reality and factualness based on the direct observed and experienced events. This leads the researcher to general conclusion and the theory is developed. He will collect information related to poverty and education in the field survey. He will assemble the individual information to find out the pattern of similarities. Analyzing the data, a tentative hypothesis would try to find how level of education is related to the level of poverty.

Suppose the study finds most of the poor populations have low education, then this will lead to the conclusion making general theory that low level of education results high level of poverty. The main characteristics of inductive approach are as follows: 1. Inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. This approach is more scientific based on empirical observation. This approach is meant to explore the nature and helps to build theory based on ground reality.

This approach clearly shows the cause effect relationship. Comparison between Inductive and Deductive Approach: 1. Inductive approach moves from specific to general top-down. Unlike, deductive approach moves from general to particular bottom-up. Inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data, while deductive approach is aimed and testing theory.

Inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study, whilst deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis. The basis of inductive approach is behavior or pattern. Conversely, deductive approach depends on facts and rules. In inductive reasoning, the argument supporting the conclusion, may or may not be strong. On the contrary, in deductive reasoning, the argument can be proved valid or invalid. Importance of Inductive and Deductive Approaches in Geographical Researches: Likewise researches in other social sciences, geographical research also walk with inductive and deductive approaches of reasoning.

In geographical research earlier studies were accompanied with deductive method, where conclusions were drawn out from the premises. There were no serious attempts, by any geographer, made in past to test the validity of the existing premises. This was because of the reliability of the geographers on metaphysical world views teleological approaches. It was believed that the changes in the phenomena were caused by law of nature. However there were geographers who put emphasis on empirical observation and studied geography inductively.

Modern geographical time period starts with two great German geographers viz. Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter. Both were contemporary to each other but each had different approach to explore the geography.

Humboldt was a believer of inductive approach and considered scientific observation as the sole tool for exploring the nature. He made several expeditions and field works to many places of South America, North America, Europe and Asia and came with many theories in the field of climatology, geomorphology, zoology, botany, geology etc. His book Kosmos is a comprehensive account of his journeys and expeditions. On the contrary, Carl Ritter, through fieldworks and empirical observation, put emphasis on deducing new conclusions from fundamentals assumptions or from already established truths.

Thus his method was followed by deductive approach. In geographical studies, there has always been methodological problem of dualism and dichotomy.

Majority of the researches in the fields of geomorphology, climatology, oceanography and earth sciences are done using inductive approach, while specialized branches of geography rely on deductive methods. However both the approaches are used in researches irrespective of their fields in geography.

It depends on the nature and objectives of the research. While conducting research it is essential to determine whether to use and inductive or deductive approach. For this the researcher, geographer in this case, has to consider the purpose of the study first, and secondly the methods which are best suited for either testing hypothesis or to find answer of specific research questions. References: Hussain, M. Trochim, M. Related Papers. Real estate problem solving and geographic information systems: A stage model of reasoning.

By Grant Thrall and Larry Wofford. Science, Philosophy and Physical Geography Robert Inkpen. Science, Philosophy and Physical Geography. Title: Bringing the methods for a causal argument back in: Comparing methodological proclivities and their implications in geography and some other social sciences. Research Methods in Geography. By Rasyid Azhar. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

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Importance of Inductive and Deductive Approaches in Geographical Researches

States that there are two general approaches to reasoning which may result in the acquisition of new knowledge: inductive reasoning commences with observation of specific instances, and seeks to establish generalisations; deductive reasoning commences with generalisations, and seeks to see if these generalisations apply to specific instances. Most often, qualitative research follows an inductive process. In most instances, however, theory developed from qualitative investigation is untested theory. Both quantitative and qualitative researchers demonstrate deductive and inductive processes in their research, but fail to recognise these processes. This is not incompatible with the use of qualitative research methods.

Deduction & Induction

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Inductive Approach (Inductive Reasoning)

In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test.

Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around. Table of contents Inductive research approach Deductive research approach Combining inductive and deductive research.

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Шлюзы открылись - в Интернет хлынула публика. К началу 1990-х годов некогда тщательно охраняемый правительством Интернет превратился в перенаселенное пространство, заполненное общедоступными почтовыми серверами и порнографическими сайтами. Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной.


  1. Charles K.

    16.04.2021 at 01:12

    PDF | Research Methods. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.

  2. Rae1978

    16.04.2021 at 20:00

    Theories structure and inform sociological research.

  3. Marko G.

    17.04.2021 at 00:32

    Theory structures and informs social work research.

  4. Viswanath W.

    19.04.2021 at 17:52

    Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of observations [1].

  5. Doorstodurchfah

    21.04.2021 at 10:12

    The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.

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