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Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Classical physics , the description of physics that existed before the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary macroscopic scale, while quantum mechanics explains the aspects of nature at small atomic and subatomic scales, for which classical mechanics is insufficient. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large macroscopic scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy , momentum , angular momentum , and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values quantization , objects have characteristics of both particles and waves wave-particle duality , and there are limits to how accurately the value of a physical quantity can be predicted prior to its measurement, given a complete set of initial conditions the uncertainty principle. Quantum mechanics arose gradually from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck 's solution in to the black-body radiation problem, and the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein 's paper which explained the photoelectric effect. The modern theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical entity called the wave function provides information, in the form of probability amplitudes , about what measurements of a particle's energy, momentum, and other physical properties may yield.
By Frederick W. Byron and Robert W. In this chapter we shall review informally the properties of the vectors and vector fields that occur in classical physics. But we shall do so in a way, and in a notation, that leads to the more abstract discussion of vectors in later chapters. The aim here is to bridge the gap between classical three-dimensional vector analysis and the formulation of abstract vector spaces, which is the mathematical language of quantum physics. Many of the ideas that will be developed more abstractly and thoroughly in later chapters will be anticipated in the familiar three-dimensional setting here. This should provide the subsequent treatment with more intuitive content.
This thesis examines the relation between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Familiar formulations of classical and quantum mechanics are shown to follow from a general theory of mechanics based on pure states with an intrinsic prob- ability structure. This theory is developed to the stage where theorems from quantum logic enable expression of the state geometry in Hilbert space. Quan- tum and classical mechanics are then elaborated and applied to subsystems and the measurement process.
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It results in what may appear to be some very strange conclusions about the physical world. In classical mechanics, objects exist in a specific place at a specific time. However, in quantum mechanics, objects instead exist in a haze of probability; they have a certain chance of being at point A, another chance of being at point B and so on. Quantum mechanics QM developed over many decades, beginning as a set of controversial mathematical explanations of experiments that the math of classical mechanics could not explain. Unlike relativity, however, the origins of QM cannot be attributed to any one scientist.
Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism and quantum mechanics. Many problems, suggestions for further reading. Mathematics of classical and quantum physics-Dover Publications
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