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Epigeal And Hypogeal Germination Pdf

epigeal and hypogeal germination pdf

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An example of a plant with hypogeal germination is the pea Pisum sativum. The opposite of hypogeal is epigeal above-ground germination.

Principles of Seed Science and Technology pp Cite as. Furthermore, because of its role in stand establishment, seed germination remains a key to modern agriculture. Thus, especially in a world acutely aware of the delicate balance between food production and world population, a fundamental understanding of germination is essential for maximum crop production. Unable to display preview.

Plant Physiology

Germination is the process in which a seed undergoes development and become a mature plant. There are different morphological and growth phases of the germination process. Appropriate optimal levels of warmth, moisture along with the correct nutrients are necessary for the germination process of the seed to form seedlings and finally become mature into a new plant. Seed germination can be categorized into two main types namely, Epigeal Germination of seeds and Hypogeal Germination of seeds. This categorization is based on the direction in which the seedlings grow upon germination. Epigeal germination is the process in which the seed leaves or the cotyledons are brought on to the soil surface along with the shoot during germination.

During germination, the embryo axis elongates and the radicle emerges through the surrounding structures of the seed. However, this elongation is not even along the axis, and it has been suggested that the region responsible for radicle protrusion is related to the type of subsequent seedling establishment. Eleven epigeal- and five hypogeal-type species were selected to study endoreduplication, a process coupled with cell elongation, in the radicle, hypocotyl—radicle transition zone, hypocotyl, and cotyledons of dry and germinating seeds, and in seedlings after radicle protrusion. In most of the cases, it was highest in the transition zone of epigeal species and in the hypocotyl in hypogeal species. These results provide information to aid in the selection of the most suitable plant material for molecular research on germination and for monitoring seed priming.

Growing or occurring above ground, commonly with reference to a mode of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above the soil on an axis the hypocotyl. Compare hypogeal. Subjects: Science and technology — Life Sciences. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. Oxford Reference.

Hypogeous germination

An example of a plant with epigeal germination is the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris. The opposite of epigeal is hypogeal underground germination. Epigeal germination implies that the cotyledons are pushed above ground. The hypocotyl elongates while the epicotyl remains the same in length. In this way, the hypocotyl pushes the cotyledon upward. Normally, the cotyledon itself contains very little nutrients in plants that show this kind of germination.

Epigeal: cotyledon is raised out of the soil by extension of hypocotyl. • Hypogeal: hypocotyl remains short and compact and cotyledons remain.

Seed Germination

The following three points will highlight the three main types of seed germination. In this kind of germination, the cotyledons do not come out of the soil surface. In such seeds the epicotyl i. All monocotyledons show hypogeal germination Fig. Among dicotyledons, gram, pea Fig.

Angiosperm seedlings fall into two main classes with respect to the fates of their cotyledons during the growth of the axis. Seedlings that raise their cotyledons above the soil surface are said to be epigeal, while those whose cotyledons remain in the soil are termed hypogeal. The position of the elongating axis relative to the site of attachment of the cotyledons generally determines whether the seedling will be epigeal or hypogeal.

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Epigeal germination (Figure ) is characteristic of bean and pine seeds and is considered evolutionarily more primitive than hypogeal germination (described.


  1. CГ©line F.

    29.03.2021 at 09:19

    Germination: The process in which seed embryo starts growing, which leads to the development of called as epigeous or epigeal germination. This type of Hypogeal germination: Seed germination in dicots in which the cotyledons remain.

  2. Nerdilithe

    29.03.2021 at 14:14

    Species with hypogeal germination dominated with %, compared to % with epigeal germination. 80% of the chosen species from nutrient-poor igapó.

  3. Oso R.

    02.04.2021 at 01:05

    This means the hypocotyl shows a greater elongation in epigeal germination while the hypocotyl is short in hypogeal germination.

  4. MichГЁle C.

    06.04.2021 at 14:21

    A technological approach to the morphofunctional classification of seedlings of 50 Brazilian forest species.

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    07.04.2021 at 01:58

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