File Name: control of gene expression at transcription and translation level .zip
In molecular biology and genetics , transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA transcription , thereby orchestrating gene activity. A single gene can be regulated in a range of ways, from altering the number of copies of RNA that are transcribed, to the temporal control of when the gene is transcribed. This control allows the cell or organism to respond to a variety of intra- and extracellular signals and thus mount a response. Some examples of this include producing the mRNA that encode enzymes to adapt to a change in a food source, producing the gene products involved in cell cycle specific activities, and producing the gene products responsible for cellular differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes, as studied in evolutionary developmental biology. The regulation of transcription is a vital process in all living organisms. It is orchestrated by transcription factors and other proteins working in concert to finely tune the amount of RNA being produced through a variety of mechanisms.
Regulatory elements involved in the post-transcriptional control of stage-specific gene expression in Trypanosoma cruzi - a review. Trypanosoma cruzi , a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, exhibits unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes, RNA editing and trans-splicing. In the absence of mechanism controlling transcription initiation, organized subsets of T. The mechanisms that regulate stage-specific gene expression in this parasite have become much clearer through sequencing its whole genome as well as performing various proteomic and microarray analyses, which have demonstrated that at least half of the T. In this review, we attempt to highlight the recent advances in characterising cis and trans-acting elements in the T.
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays important roles in diverse cellular processes such as development, metabolism and cancer progression. Whereas many classical studies explored the mechanistics and physiological impact on specific mRNA substrates, the recent development of genome-wide analysis tools enables the study of post-transcriptional gene regulation on a global scale. Importantly, these studies revealed distinct programs of RNA regulation, suggesting a complex and versatile post-transcriptional regulatory network. It will be a future challenge to link the spectra of targets for RNA-binding proteins to post-transcriptional regulatory programs and to reveal its physiological implications. Regulation of gene expression is fundamental for the coordinate synthesis, assembly and localization of the macromolecular structures of cells. This is achieved by a multi-step program that is highly interconnected and regulated at diverse levels Fig. As soon as RNA precursors are formed, they get covered by a host of proteins forming ribonucleoprotein complexes [ 3 , 4 ].
Post-transcriptional regulation is the control of gene expression at the RNA level. It occurs once the RNA polymerase has been attached to the gene's promoter and is synthesizing the nucleotide sequence. Therefore, as the name indicates, it occurs between the transcription phase and the translation phase of gene expression. These controls are critical for the regulation of many genes across human tissues. After being produced, the stability and distribution of the different transcripts is regulated post-transcriptional regulation by means of RNA binding protein RBP that control the various steps and rates controlling events such as alternative splicing , nuclear degradation exosome , processing, nuclear export three alternative pathways , sequestration in P-bodies for storage or degradation and ultimately translation.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Since the elucidation of the double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA in , biologists have been racing to understand the details of the science of genetics. The deeper they penetrate into the workings of the DNA process, however, the more complexity emerges, challenging the early optimism that characterizing the structural mechanisms would reveal the entire picture. It now appears likely that life within an organism unfolds as a dynamic process, guided by the DNA program to be sure, yet not subject to clockwork predictability.
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Последний щит угрожающе таял. Сьюзан и Соши занялись поисками во Всемирной паутине. - Лаборатория вне закона? - спросила Сьюзан. - Это что за фрукт. Соши пожала плечами. - Открыть. Ну и ну, - ужаснулась .
Фонтейн побледнел. Он, конечно, понял, чем это грозит: червь сожрет фильтры, содержащие информацию в тайне, и без них она станет доступна всем без исключения.
Смит откашлялся. - Халохот ликвидировал его с помощью НТП - непроникающей травматической пули. Это резиновая капсула, которая при попадании растворяется. Все тихо и чисто. Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола.
Смит откашлялся. - Халохот ликвидировал его с помощью НТП - непроникающей травматической пули. Это резиновая капсула, которая при попадании растворяется. Все тихо и чисто.
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