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Definition And Classification Of Carbohydrates Pdf

definition and classification of carbohydrates pdf

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See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Dec 29, They serve as the major source of chemical energy for living organisms e. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

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Pharmacy Universe Follow. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Satyendra Singh. Arya Sajeev. Asiya A. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Carbohydrates and Its Classification 1. For example: 1. Glucose for the principle sugar in blood 2. Fructose for a sugar in fruits and honey 3. Sucrose for ordinary table sugar 4. Maltose for malt sugar 3. Monosaccharides These consist of only one saccharide or sugar unit and they are non-hydrolysable.

They are subclassified according to: 1-The number of carbon atoms present in their molecule and, 2-The type of carbonyl group they contain. The number of carbon atoms present in the molecule. Whether they contain an aldehyde or ketone group. Therefore, it exist in two enantiomeric forms. O O Pyran Furan O O Cyclic Structures STEP 1 Number the carbon chain and turn clockwise to form a linear open chain.

The optical rotations of the sugars change until they reach the same value. All reducing sugars except a few ketoses undergo mutarotation. Hemiacetals are synthesized by adding one molar equivalent of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone. Sugars that contain nitrogen 1. Other Reactions of Monosaccharides 1. Enolate ions are stabilized by electron delocalization.

Enolization is a form of tautomerism. Oxidation Reactions of Monosaccharides A. These dicarboxylic acids are known as aldaric acids. For example, D-glucitol or D-sorbitol Maltosazone Lactosazone Glucosazone Pentoses and methylpentoses give furfural and methylfurfural, respectively by the action of hot hydrochloric acid, while ketoses and aldoses give hydroxymethylfurfural. They are rarely present in the free state but generally occur as pentosans or form the sugar moiety of glycosides.

Glucose can also be obtained from honey, which contains a mixture of glucose, fructose and sucrose, or by inversion of sucrose. Glucosazone occurs in the form of golden yellow, needle -shaped crystals. Uses It has a great pharmaceutical importance as ingredient in i. It is used in ice-cream and candy industries.

Uses Fructose is used as food for diabetics and in infant feeding formulae more easily digested than glucose. Insulin is essential for aiding glucose transport into cells. People with type I diabetes do not produce insulin, whereas those with type II diabetes either do not produce enough insulin or cannot efficiently use the insulin their bodies make. Factors such as overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, and genetic predisposition all increase the risk for type II diabetes.

People with diabetes must pay attention to the amount of all carbohydrates—sugars and starches—they consume. Formation of Maltose Disaccharides According to the position of the linkage between the sugar units, disaccharides are classified into non-reducing such as sucrose and reducing such as maltose and lactose. Non-reducing disaccharides Sucrose saccharose, cane sugar or beet sugar Source Sucrose is the most widely occurring disaccharide, it is found in many fruit juices, seeds, leaves, roots and honey.

It does not form an osazone. Uses of sucrose In Pharmaceutical industries, sucrose is used in syrup preparation and tablet manufacture. It is used as nutrient and demulcent.

The addition of another glucose unit yields maltotriose; further additions will produce dextrins also called maltodextrins and eventually starch glucose polymer. Lactose or milk sugar Source Lactose is the principal sugar of mammalian milk and is not present in higher plants.

Different groups of polysaccarides are distinguished according to the final products of hydrolysis: 1-The homosaccharides or holosides which yield on hydrolysis similar simple sugar units units of the same monosaccharide. Those, which yield pentose sugar units on hydrolysis, are called pentosans and similarly those yielding hexose units are called hexosans.

Physical Characters of CHO 1-Condition: monosaccharides and most disaccharides are white, crystalline in shape and with sharp melting points. This optical activity is due to presence of a chiral center in the molecule.

HPLC analysis is rapid, can tolerate a wide range of sample concentrations, and provides a high degree of precision and accuracy. A homopolysaccharide consisting of glucose monomeric unit is called a glucan, one consisting of galactose units is a galactan, and so on.

Heparin Source Heparin is the powerful blood anticoagulant. Uses Heparin and heparin analogues are used as anticoagulants. The diversity and complexity of carbohydrates explain their wide range of biological functions. Of these are natural the thiosugars, aminoglycosides and macrolide antibiotics produced by various species of bacteria and fungi.

It is an immunostimmulant related to lentinan. III-Laxatives: Lactulose is used in treatment of chronic constipation. IV-Sucralfate is an aluminum hydroxide complex of sucrose sulfate that is used in the therapy of duodenal ulcers. They are times sweeter than sucrose. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.

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The sugars added to foods have been featured in recent scientific research, including the publication of the World Health Organization recommendation to limit consumption of added sugars, based on studies on weight gain and dental caries. However, it is possible that there is evidence of an association between excessive consumption and other pathologies, but scientific studies have yet to investigate these associations. Moreover, there is no consensus on the descriptions and definitions of these sugars, with several terms and components used to designate them. In Brazil, there are few studies investigating added sugars, identifying a lack of discussion on this subject. This paper presents a literature review of sugars added to foods, from their definitions and classifications to the metabolism and health effects. The search was performed without limiting dates in the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and SciELO, as well as in national and international official sites.

Most people are familiar with carbohydrates, one type of macromolecule, especially when it comes to what we eat. Carbohydrates are, in fact, an essential part of our diet; grains, fruits, and vegetables are all natural sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates provide energy to the body, particularly through glucose, a simple sugar that is a component of starch and an ingredient in many staple foods. Carbohydrates also have other important functions in humans, animals, and plants. Carbohydrates can be represented by the stoichiometric formula CH 2 O n , where n is the number of carbons in the molecule. In other words, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is in carbohydrate molecules.

Carbohydrates are divided into four types: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides consist of a simple sugar; that is, they have the chemical formula C6H12O6. Oligosaccharides are three to six monosaccharide units, and polysaccharides are more than six.

Carbohydrate terminology and classification

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Structure, classification and functions of carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. They are normally broken down into five major classifications of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides Disaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides Nucleotides. The word monosaccharide is derived from mono, meaning "one", and saccharide, meaning "sugar". The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Each simple sugar has a cyclic structure and is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in ratios of respectively.

Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecule on Earth. Living organisms use carbohydrates as accessible energy to fuel cellular reactions and for structural support inside cell walls. Cells attach carbohydrate molecules to proteins and lipids, modifying structures to enhance functionality. For example, small carbohydrate molecules bonded to lipids in cell membranes improve cell identification, cell signaling, and complex immune system responses. To recognize how carbohydrates function in living cells, we must understand their chemical structure. The structure of carbohydrates determines how energy is stored in carbohydrate bonds during photosynthesis and how breaking these bonds releases energy during cellular respiration.

Carbohydrates, together with lipids , proteins and nucleic acids, are one of the four major classes of biologically essential organic molecules found in all living organisms. Carbohydrates, all coming from the process of photosynthesis, represent the major part of organic substance on Earth, are the most abundant organic components in the major part of fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereal grains, carry out many functions in all living organisms and are the major energy source in a Mediterranean-type diet. Finally, they provide flavor and texture in many processed foods. Carbohydrates, also called Carbs, are defined as aldehydic or ketonic compounds with a some number of oxydrilic groups so polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones as well. Bender D. Woodhead Publishing.

PDF | Dietary carbohydrates are a group of chemically defined substances with a range of physical and physiological properties and health.


Carbohydrate , class of naturally occurring compounds and derivatives formed from them. In the early part of the 19th century, substances such as wood , starch , and linen were found to be composed mainly of molecules containing atoms of carbon C , hydrogen H , and oxygen O and to have the general formula C 6 H 1 2 O 6 ; other organic molecules with similar formulas were found to have a similar ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. A carbohydrate is a naturally occurring compound , or a derivative of such a compound, with the general chemical formula C x H 2 O y , made up of molecules of carbon C , hydrogen H , and oxygen O. Carbohydrates are the most widespread organic substances and play a vital role in all life. Carbohydrates are divided into four types: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Let us make an in-depth study of the carbohydrates in plants. After reading this article you will learn about 1. Meaning of Carbohydrates 2.

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Carbohydrates : Meaning, Classification and Structural Features | Plants

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