File Name: a history of pakistan and its origins .zip
Environmental assessment is regarded as a process that plays an integrative role, where the social, economic and biophysical systems are combined into a holistic picture of the world.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the region of the Indus Valley ,     which spans the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern Iranian plateau.
Situated on the first coastal migration route of Homo sapiens out of Africa, the region was inhabited early by modern humans. The ensuing millennia saw the region of present-day Pakistan absorb many influences—represented among others in the ancient Buddhist sites of Taxila , and Takht-i-Bahi , the 14th-century Islamic - Sindhi monuments of Thatta , and the 17th-century Mughal monuments of Lahore. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was appropriated by the East India Company , followed, after , by 90 years of direct British rule , and ending with the creation of Pakistan in , through the efforts, among others, of its future national poet Allama Iqbal and its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Since then, the country has experienced both civilian-democratic and military rule, resulting in periods of significant economic and military growth as well those of instability; significant during the latter, was the secession , in , of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh.
Riwat is a Paleolithic site in upper Punjab. Riwat Site 55, shows a later occupation dated to around 45, years ago. The Soanian is archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic , Acheulean. In Adiyala and Khasala , about 16 kilometres 9. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. Mehrgarh is an important neolithic site discovered in , which shows early evidence of farming and herding,  and dentistry. The residents of Mehrgarh lived in mud brick houses, stored grain in granaries, fashioned tools with copper ore , cultivated barley, wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle.
As the civilization progressed — BCE residents began to engage in crafts, including flint knapping , tanning , bead production, and metalworking.
The site was occupied continuously until BCE,  when climatic changes began to occur. Between and BCE, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favor of the Indus Valley,  where a new civilization was in the early stages of development.
Biagi and E. Starnini - Indus Civilization. In Smith, C. Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer Nature, Switzerland: The civilisation included urban centres such as Harappa , Ganeriwala and Mohenjo-daro as well as an offshoot called the Kulli culture — BCE in southern Balochistan and was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses.
It is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation as well. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived. Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward.
The civilization collapsed around BCE, though the reasons behind its fall are still unknown. Through the excavation of the Indus cities and analysis of town planning and seals, it has been inferred that the Civilization had high level of sophistication in its town planning, arts, crafts, and trade. The Vedic Period c. As Indo-Aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley, along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture. During this period the Vedas , the oldest scriptures of Hinduism , were composed.
Several early tribes and kingdoms arose during this period and internecine military conflicts between these various tribes was common; as described in the Rig Veda , which was being composed at this time, the most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings.
The battle was fought between the Bharatas tribe and a confederation of ten tribes:. These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom.
The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led to misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended. King Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great.
However, he is known to have campaigned beyond Makran in the regions of Kalat , Khuzdar and Panjgur and lost most of his army in the Gedrosian Desert speculated today as the Kharan Desert. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time. Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals:. Despite all this, there is no archaeological evidence of Achaemenid control over these region as not a single archaeological site that can be positively identified with the Achaemenid Empire has been found anywhere in Pakistan, including at Taxila.
What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the Darius inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the Histories of Herodotus and the later Alexander Chronicles Arrian, Strabo et al. These sources list three Indus Valley tributaries or conquered territories that were subordinated to the Persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the Persian Kings: Gandhara, Sattagydia and Hindush.
The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps. In BC, Alexander married Roxana a princess of the former Bactria satrapy to cement his relations with his new territories. Now firmly under Macedonian rule, Alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley. The rationale for the Indus campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought ended around the vicinity of the River Indus.
In the winter of BC, Alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five Achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority.
Ambhi , then ruler of Taxila in the former Hindush satrapy complied, but the remaining tribes and clans in the former satraps of Gandhara, Arachosia, Sattagydia and Gedrosia rejected Alexander's offer. By spring of BC, Alexander began on his Indus expedition from Bactria, leaving behind horses and 10, soldiers.
He divided his army into two groups. The larger force would enter the Indus Valley through the Khyber pass , just as Darius had done years earlier, while a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander entered through a northern route, possibly through Broghol or Dorah Pass near Chitral.
Alexander was commanding a group of shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the tribes of the former Gandhara satrapy. The first tribe they encountered were the Aspasioi tribe of the Kunar Valley , who initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart. However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40, people were enslaved. The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, Bazira Barikot and Massaga.
So enraged was Alexander about the resistance put up by the Assakenoi that he killed the entire population of Massaga and reduced its buildings to rubble — similar slaughters followed in Ora.
The stories of these slaughters reached numerous Assakenians, who began fleeing to Aornos, a hill-fort located between Shangla and Kohistan.
Alexander followed close behind their heels and besieged the strategic hill-fort, eventually capturing and destroying the fort and killing everyone inside.
The remaining smaller tribes either surrendered or like the Astanenoi tribe of Pushkalavati Charsadda were quickly neutralized where 38, soldiers and , oxen were captured by Alexander. With the conquest of Gandhara complete, Alexander switched to strengthening his military supply line, which by now stretched dangerously vulnerable over the Hindu Kush back to Balkh in Bactria. The famous Battle of the Hydaspes Jhelum between Alexander with Ambhi and Porus would be the last major battle fought by him.
After defeating King Porus , his battle weary troops refused to advance into India  to engage the army of Nanda Dynasty and its vanguard of trampling elephants. Alexander, therefore proceeded south-west along the Indus Valley. In crossing the desert, Alexander's army took enormous casualties from hunger and thirst, but fought no human enemy. They encountered the "Fish Eaters", or Ichthyophagi, primitive people who lived on the Makran coast, who had matted hair, no fire, no metal, no clothes, lived in huts made of whale bones, and ate raw seafood.
Alexander founded several new settlements in Gandhara , Punjab and Sindh. The empire was put under the authority of Perdiccas , and the territories were divided among Alexander's generals the Diadochi , who thereby became satraps of the new provinces. However, the Satraps of the Indus Valley largely remained under the same leaders while conflicts were brewing in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Antonetti and P. Biagi eds.
Oxbow Books, Oxford: At the same time, Seleucus I now ruler much of the Macedonian Empire was advancing from Babylon in order to establish his writ in the former Persian and Indus Valley provinces of Alexander. During this period, Chandragupta's mercenaries may have assassinated Satrap of Punjab Philip.
The Mauryan Empire now controlled Punjab and Sindh. As the Seleucid Empire expanded eastwards towards the Indus, it was becoming more difficult for Seleucus to assert control over the vast eastern domains. It is said that Chandragupta fielded an army of , men and 9, war elephants. After two years of war, Chandragupta was successful in defeating Seluecus , so Seleucus reached an agreement with Chandragupta, in which he gave his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta and exchanged his eastern provinces for a considerable force of war elephants, which would play a decisive role at The Battle of Ipsus BCE.
Strabo, in his Geographica, wrote:. Alexander took these away from the Indo-Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus Chandragupta , upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange elephants. Thus Chandragupta was given Gedrosia Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan , including the modern Herat  and Kandahar provinces, thereby ending Macedonian control in the Indus Valley by BC.
Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and commercial activities all thrived and expanded across the Indian subcontinent due to the establishment of a cohesive system of finance, administration, and security.
The empire was divided into four provinces, the imperial capital being at Pataliputra. From Asokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals were Tosali in the eastern Ganges plain , Ujjain in the western Ganges plain , Suvarnagiri in the Deccan , and Taxila in the northern Indus Valley. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara royal prince , who governed the provinces as king's representative and was assisted by Mahamatyas and a council of ministers.
The empire also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Members of the Maurya dynasty were primarily adherents of Buddhism and Hinduism.
Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across the empire.
Now they work among all religions for the establishment of Dhamma, for the promotion of Dhamma, and for the welfare and happiness of all who are devoted to Dhamma. They work among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Gandharas, the Rastrikas, the Pitinikas and other peoples on the western borders.
Edicts of Asoka, 5th Rock Edict, S. By the time Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka had become emperor, Hinduism was flourishing through the Indus Valley and much of the eastern Seleucid Empire. Many of the Greek and Indo-Iranian peoples in the western domains also converted to Buddhism during this period, according to the Edicts of Asoka:.
Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas , the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma. Edicts of Ashoka , 13th Rock Edict, S. Although Buddhism was flourishing, Brahminism was resisting Buddhist advances in the Ganges Plain and when Ashoka himself converted to Buddhism, he directed his efforts towards expanding the faith in the Indo-Iranian and Hellenistic worlds.
According to the stone-inscribed Edicts of Ashoka —some in bilingual Greek and Aramaic inscriptions—he sent Buddhist emissaries to Graeco-Asiatic kingdoms, as far away as the eastern Mediterranean. The edicts name each of the rulers of the Hellenistic world at the time, indicating the intimacy between Hellenistic and Buddhistic peoples in the region.
Furthermore, according to Pali sources, some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek-Buddhist monks, indicating close religious exchanges between the two cultures:. When the thera elder Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror Ashoka , had brought the third council to an end… he sent forth theras, one here and one there: …and to Aparantaka the "Western countries" corresponding to Gujarat and Sindh he sent the Greek Yona named Dhammarakkhita
India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Nothing was known about this civilization till s when the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz.
Christophe Jaffrelot, ed. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. London: Anthem Press, Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan: At the Crosscurrent of History.
Afghanistan , landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East , Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted to subdue it, leaving traces of their efforts in great monuments now fallen to ruin. In the last quarter of the 20th century, Afghanistan suffered the ruinous effects of civil war greatly exacerbated by a military invasion and occupation by the Soviet Union —
A History of Pakistan and Its Origins - DOWNLOAD nebraskansforjustice.orgnebraskansforjustice.org The Pakistan Paradox - Christophe Jaffrelot.
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Meri behan ne khudkhushi isliye ki thi kyunki uske sasural wale bahut tang karte the. Over the period of time, we will add more and more such stories to this list. Urdu and Hindi Stories Meri nayi nayi shaadi huvi thi mere husband ki bilaspurme transfer huvi thi hum naye naye rahaneko gaye the makan malik mere husaband ka do. Your immediate family includes your father, mother and siblings.
Originally published in French in 1 , this English translation of A History of Pakistan and its Origins was prepared for the English reader and released following the events of September This reviewer has not read the original French edition and he cannot therefore know if the chapters of the English version mirror the former. Single volume histories are generally the endeavour of a sole author.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the region of the Indus Valley ,     which spans the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern Iranian plateau. Situated on the first coastal migration route of Homo sapiens out of Africa, the region was inhabited early by modern humans. The ensuing millennia saw the region of present-day Pakistan absorb many influences—represented among others in the ancient Buddhist sites of Taxila , and Takht-i-Bahi , the 14th-century Islamic - Sindhi monuments of Thatta , and the 17th-century Mughal monuments of Lahore. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was appropriated by the East India Company , followed, after , by 90 years of direct British rule , and ending with the creation of Pakistan in , through the efforts, among others, of its future national poet Allama Iqbal and its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Since then, the country has experienced both civilian-democratic and military rule, resulting in periods of significant economic and military growth as well those of instability; significant during the latter, was the secession , in , of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh.
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