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Smart Machines Ibms Watson And The Era Of Cognitive Computing Pdf

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Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language , [2] developed in IBM 's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci. The computer system was initially developed to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy! Watson was created as a question answering QA computing system that IBM built to apply advanced natural language processing , information retrieval , knowledge representation , automated reasoning , and machine learning technologies to the field of open domain question answering. The key difference between QA technology and document search is that document search takes a keyword query and returns a list of documents, ranked in order of relevance to the query often based on popularity and page ranking , while QA technology takes a question expressed in natural language, seeks to understand it in much greater detail, and returns a precise answer to the question.

Watson (computer)

Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language , [2] developed in IBM 's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.

The computer system was initially developed to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy! Watson was created as a question answering QA computing system that IBM built to apply advanced natural language processing , information retrieval , knowledge representation , automated reasoning , and machine learning technologies to the field of open domain question answering.

The key difference between QA technology and document search is that document search takes a keyword query and returns a list of documents, ranked in order of relevance to the query often based on popularity and page ranking , while QA technology takes a question expressed in natural language, seeks to understand it in much greater detail, and returns a precise answer to the question.

When created, IBM stated that, "more than different techniques are used to analyze natural language, identify sources, find and generate hypotheses, find and score evidence, and merge and rank hypotheses.

In recent years, the Watson capabilities have been extended and the way in which Watson works has been changed to take advantage of new deployment models Watson on IBM Cloud and evolved machine learning capabilities and optimised hardware available to developers and researchers.

The system is workload-optimized, integrating massively parallel POWER7 processors and built on IBM's DeepQA technology, [17] which it uses to generate hypotheses, gather massive evidence, and analyze data. According to John Rennie , Watson can process gigabytes, the equivalent of a million books, per second. The sources of information for Watson include encyclopedias , dictionaries , thesauri , newswire articles and literary works. The computer's techniques for unravelling Jeopardy! That machine zeroes in on keywords in a clue then combs its memory in Watson's case, a terabyte databank of human knowledge for clusters of associations with those words.

It rigorously checks the top hits against all the contextual information it can muster: the category name; the kind of answer being sought; the time, place, and gender hinted at in the clue; and so on.

And when it feels "sure" enough, it decides to buzz. This is all an instant, intuitive process for a human Jeopardy! Watson parses questions into different keywords and sentence fragments in order to find statistically related phrases. Once Watson has a small number of potential solutions, it is able to check against its database to ascertain whether the solution makes sense or not. Watson's basic working principle is to parse keywords in a clue while searching for related terms as responses.

This gives Watson some advantages and disadvantages compared with human Jeopardy! As a result, human players usually generate responses faster than Watson, especially to short clues. In a sequence of 20 mock games of Jeopardy , human participants were able to use the average six to seven seconds that Watson needed to hear the clue and decide whether to signal for responding. Given the speed of this circuitry compared to the speed of human reaction times, Watson's reaction time was faster than the human contestants except when the human anticipated instead of reacted to the ready signal.

The Jeopardy! In , IBM Research manager Charles Lickel, over dinner with coworkers, noticed that the restaurant they were in had fallen silent. He soon discovered the cause of this evening hiatus: Ken Jennings , who was then in the middle of his successful game run on Jeopardy!

Nearly the entire restaurant had piled toward the televisions, mid-meal, to watch Jeopardy! Intrigued by the quiz show as a possible challenge for IBM, Lickel passed the idea on, and in , IBM Research executive Paul Horn supported Lickel, pushing for someone in his department to take up the challenge of playing Jeopardy!

Though he initially had trouble finding any research staff willing to take on what looked to be a much more complex challenge than the wordless game of chess, eventually David Ferrucci took him up on the offer. During , the IBM team was given three to five years and a staff of 15 people to solve the problems.

During the game, Watson had access to million pages of structured and unstructured content consuming four terabytes of disk storage [14] including the full text of the edition of Wikipedia , [40] but was not connected to the Internet. Watson consistently outperformed its human opponents on the game's signaling device, but had trouble in a few categories, notably those having short clues containing only a few words.

In , IBM representatives communicated with Jeopardy! To alleviate that claim, a third party randomly picked the clues from previously written shows that were never broadcast. Originally Watson signalled electronically, but show staff requested that it press a button physically, as the human contestants would.

Ken Jennings noted, "If you're trying to win on the show, the buzzer is all", and that Watson "can knock out a microsecond-precise buzz every single time with little or no variation. Human reflexes can't compete with computer circuits in this regard. Human players, including former Jeopardy! To provide a physical presence in the televised games, Watson was represented by an " avatar " of a globe, inspired by the IBM "smarter planet" symbol.

Jennings described the computer's avatar as a "glowing blue ball criss-crossed by 'threads' of thought—42 threads, to be precise", [23] and stated that the number of thought threads in the avatar was an in-joke referencing the significance of the number 42 in Douglas Adams ' Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.

A practice match was recorded on January 13, , and the official matches were recorded on January 14, All participants maintained secrecy about the outcome until the match was broadcast in February. None of the three players responded incorrectly to a clue. The first round was broadcast February 14, , and the second round, on February 15, The right to choose the first category had been determined by a draw won by Rutter. Watson's performance was characterized by some quirks.

In one instance, Watson repeated a reworded version of an incorrect response offered by Jennings. Jennings said "What are the '20s? Then Watson said "What is s? In another instance, Watson was initially given credit for a response of "What is a leg? Because Watson, unlike a human, could not have been responding to Jennings's mistake, it was decided that this response was incorrect. The broadcast version of the episode was edited to omit Trebek's original acceptance of Watson's response.

Watson took a commanding lead in Double Jeopardy! However during the Final Jeopardy! Rutter and Jennings gave the correct response of Chicago , but Watson's response was "What is Toronto????? Chris Welty , who also worked on Watson, suggested that it may not have been able to correctly parse the second part of the clue, "its second largest, for a World War II battle" which was not a standalone clause despite it following a semicolon , and required context to understand that it was referring to a second-largest airport.

During the introduction, Trebek a Canadian native joked that he had learned Toronto was a U. In the first round, Jennings was finally able to choose a Daily Double clue, [60] while Watson responded to one Daily Double clue incorrectly for the first time in the Double Jeopardy!

IBM has bragged to the media that Watson's question-answering skills are good for more than annoying Alex Trebek. The company sees a future in which fields like medical diagnosis , business analytics , and tech support are automated by question-answering software like Watson.

Just as factory jobs were eliminated in the 20th century by new assembly-line robots, Brad and I were the first knowledge-industry workers put out of work by the new generation of 'thinking' machines. Philosopher John Searle argues that Watson—despite impressive capabilities—cannot actually think. On February 28, , Watson played an untelevised exhibition match of Jeopardy!

In the first round, Rush D. Holt, Jr. D-NJ, a former Jeopardy! IBM's Christopher Padilla said of the match, "The technology behind Watson represents a major advancement in computing. In the data-intensive environment of government, this type of technology can help organizations make better decisions and improve how government helps its citizens. According to IBM, "The goal is to have computers start to interact in natural human terms across a range of applications and processes, understanding the questions that humans ask and providing answers that humans can understand and justify.

Weber, IBM's general counsel , that Watson may be used for legal research. Watson is based on commercially available IBM Power servers that have been marketed since February IBM expects the price to decrease substantially within a decade as the technology improves. Commentator Rick Merritt said that "there's another really important reason why it is strategic for IBM to be seen very broadly by the American public as a company that can tackle tough computer problems.

A big slice of [IBM's profit] comes from selling to the U. In , it was reported that three companies were working with IBM to create apps embedded with Watson technology.

Fluid is developing an app for retailers, one called "The North Face", which is designed to provide advice to online shoppers. Welltok is developing an app designed to give people advice on ways to engage in activities to improve their health.

MD Buyline is developing an app for the purpose of advising medical institutions on equipment procurement decisions. In November , IBM announced it would make Watson's API available to software application providers, enabling them to build apps and services that are embedded in Watson's capabilities.

To build out its base of partners who create applications on the Watson platform, IBM consults with a network of venture capital firms, which advise IBM on which of their portfolio companies may be a logical fit for what IBM calls the Watson Ecosystem. Thus far, roughly organizations and individuals have signed up with IBM, with interest in creating applications that could use the Watson platform.

On January 30, , it was announced that Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute would receive a successor version of Watson, which would be housed at the Institute's technology park and be available to researchers and students. On June 3, , three new Watson Ecosystem partners were chosen from more than business concepts submitted by teams spanning 18 industries from 43 countries. On July 9, , Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories announced plans to integrate Watson to improve their customer experience platform, citing the sheer volume of customer data to analyze is staggering.

Watson is being used by Decibel, a music discovery startup, in its app MusicGeek which uses the supercomputer to provide music recommendations to its users. The use of the artificial intelligence of Watson has also been found in the hospitality industry. GoMoment uses Watson for its Rev1 app, which gives hotel staff a way to quickly respond to questions from guests.

OmniEarth, Inc. In February , Rare Carat, a New York City -based startup and e-commerce platform for buying diamonds and diamond rings, introduced an IBM Watson-powered artificial intelligence chatbot called "Rocky" to assist novice diamond buyers through the daunting process of purchasing a diamond. It uses Watson's Conversation applications programming interface.

In healthcare, Watson's natural language, hypothesis generation, and evidence-based learning capabilities are being investigated to see how Watson may contribute to clinical decision support systems and the increase in artificial intelligence in healthcare for use by medical professionals. In February , it was announced that IBM would be partnering with Nuance Communications for a research project to develop a commercial product during the next 18 to 24 months, designed to exploit Watson's clinical decision support capabilities.

Physicians at Columbia University would help to identify critical issues in the practice of medicine where the system's technology may be able to contribute, and physicians at the University of Maryland would work to identify the best way that a technology like Watson could interact with medical practitioners to provide the maximum assistance.

In September , IBM and WellPoint now Anthem announced a partnership to utilize Watson's data crunching capability to help suggest treatment options to physicians.

The company has sent Watson to the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University , where it will increase its health expertise and assist medical professionals in treating patients. The medical facility will utilize Watson's ability to store and process large quantities of information to help speed up and increase the accuracy of the treatment process.

This product provides information and insights to physicians and cancer patients to help them identify personalized, evidence-based cancer care options. Manipal Hospitals is the second hospital [] in the world to adopt this technology and first in the world to offer it to patients online as an expert second opinion through their website.

Several startups in the healthcare space have been effectively using seven business model archetypes to take solutions based on IBM Watson to the marketplace. These archetypes depends on the value generate for the target user e.

Watson Discovery Advisor will focus on research and development projects in pharmaceutical industry , publishing , and biotechnology , Watson Engagement Advisor will focus on self-service applications using insights on the basis of natural language questions posed by business users, and Watson Explorer will focus on helping enterprise users uncover and share data-driven insights based on federated search more easily.

Cognitive Computing

Search this site. Kelly III. Kelly III Synopsis: We are crossing a new frontier in the evolution of computing and entering the era of cognitive systems. In Smart Machines, John E. Kelly III, director of IBM Research, and Steve Hamm, a writer at IBM and a former business and technology journalist, introduce the fascinating world of cognitive systems to general audiences and provide a window into the future of computing. Cognitive systems promise to penetrate complexity and assist people and organizations in better decision making.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Kelly and S. Kelly , S. Hamm Published Engineering. We are crossing a new frontier in the evolution of computing and entering the era of cognitive systems.

smart machines ibms watson and the era of cognitive computing pdf

short book, Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive. Computing Computing. IBM's Watson computer created a sensation when it bested two.


Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing

Super Brains: Cognitive Computing for CEOs, Technologists, and Business Decision Makers

Steve Hamm and John Kelly

Navigationsleiste aufklappen. Sehr geehrter ZLibrary-Benutzer! Wir haben Sie an die spezielle Domain de1lib. North Holland. Venkat N.

We are crossing a new frontier in the evolution of computing and entering the era of cognitive systems. Cognitive systems promise to penetrate complexity and assist peop Cognitive systems promise to penetrate complexity and assist people and organizations in better decision making. They can help doctors evaluate and treat patients, augment the ways we see, anticipate major weather events, and contribute to smarter urban planning. Keywords: computing , cognitive systems , IBM , decision making , big data , computing challenges , computing evolution. Forgot password?

Cognitive computing promises to be the next big advance in computing systems — but what is it? Despite the buzz, there is no firm consensus on what precisely constitutes cognitive computing, an advanced field of artificial intelligence. In this in-depth guide, we demystify and explain cognitive computing, including how it works, how it is used, and how you can deploy it in your business.

В левом верхнем углу появилось послание Танкадо: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА Правая часть экрана отображала внутренний вид мини-автобуса и сгрудившихся вокруг камеры Беккера и двух агентов. В центре возник нечеткий из-за атмосферных помех кадр, который затем превратился в черно-белую картинку парка. - Трансляция началась, - объявил агент Смит.

Cognitive Technologies in Monitoring Management

Пора звонить Стратмору и выкладывать плохую новость: поиски зашли в тупик.

Беккер застонал и начал выбираться из расписанного краской из баллончиков зала. Он оказался в узком, увешанном зеркалами туннеле, который вел на открытую террасу, уставленную столами и стульями. На террасе тоже было полно панков, но Беккеру она показалась чем-то вроде Шангри-Ла: ночное летнее небо над головой, тихие волны долетающей из зала музыки. Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу.

У нее часто возникало чувство, что Стратмор не слишком высокого мнения о Дэвиде и считает, что она могла бы найти себе кого-то поинтереснее, чем простой преподаватель.  - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если вы инструктировали Дэвида сегодня утром по телефону из машины, кто-то мог перехватить… - Один шанс на миллион, - возразил Стратмор, стараясь ее успокоить.  - Подслушивающий должен был находиться в непосредственной близости и точно знать, что надо подслушивать.

 Пожалуйста, уделите мне одну минуту. Беккер отлично говорил по-французски, тем не менее обратился к этому человеку на языке, который тот, как он надеялся, должен был знать хуже. Убедить абсолютно незнакомого человека отдать вам золотое кольцо скорее всего будет весьма непросто, поэтому Беккер хотел заручиться хотя бы одним преимуществом.

 - Он выдержал паузу.  - Итак, если Танкадо хотел, чтобы мы обнаружили его почту, зачем ему понадобился секретный адрес. Сьюзан снова задумалась. - Может быть, для того, чтобы вы не заподозрили, что это приманка. Может быть, Танкадо защитил его ровно настолько, чтобы вы на него наткнулись и сочли, что вам очень повезло.

 - Беккеру нравилось это немецкое слово, означающее убийство. От него так и веяло холодом. - Ermordung.

 Не в этом дело, - дипломатично ответила Мидж, понимая, что ступает на зыбкую почву.

Разница равна трем. Он медленно потянул к себе микрофон. В то же самое мгновение Сьюзан опять бросила взгляд на руку Танкадо, на этот раз посмотрев не на кольцо… не на гравировку на золоте, а на… его пальцы. Три пальца. Дело было вовсе не и кольце, a в человеческой плоти.

 Это невозможно, - сказал директор.  - Вы представляете, каковы будут последствия. Джабба отлично знал, что директор прав. Более трех тысяч узлов Независимой цифровой сети связывают весь мир с базой данных агентства. Каждый день военные оценивают моментальные спутниковые снимки всех передвижений по территории потенциальных противников.

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