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Restricted access to the most recent articles in subscription journals was reinstated on January 12, More informations. Censoring a book is common in the United States. This essay is a reflexion on the publication and reception of Francophone picture books on the topic — originals and translations. In this perspective, it also considers the question of the circulation of these books between the two cultures, as well as towards the two cultures respectively, Francophone picture books tending to be bolder in content than their Anglophone counterparts.
Some references used to explain reception are gathered thanks to primary sources, in particular personal communications; others come from secondary sources, such as academic publications, blogs, and newspaper articles. This paper also explores the different forms of censorship, including the translation of a work from another culture or the alterations to the illustrations of an original work in an adaptation.
The contrastive approach adopted reveals that, despite the growing number of picture books featuring same-sex couples, censorship is not only an American reality but a French reality as well. Those took different forms, including the control of the new acquisitions made by some libraries. Topical as they may seem, their existence begs for further study within the more general context of the publication of LGBTQ literature for children both in France and in the United States.
The topic, which made the headlines in France back in at the time of the controversy regarding mariage pour tous , has since then sunk into oblivion.
Incidentally, in the French academia, the publication, reception and translation of these books in France is under-researched. The other sources of information available are mainly non-academic, such as blogs.
This invisibility in the French academia serves as a reminder that more largely the theorizing and promotion of gay and lesbian visibility has met with resistance in France Harvey ; Revenin ; Bardou . Part of this complexity explains why Translation Studies have now slightly shifted their focus to incorporate occurrences of censorship not only in autocratic governments but also in liberal societies Merkle 10 , as is the case here.
This derives from the different agents involved in the translation process — i. These are two key aspects at the core of the broad definition of censorship proposed by Merkle that serves as a basis for this study. In other words, censorship is more or less detectable, and is even more so when internalized in the form of self-censorship. In such a situation, the subject matter of the source text and the political and cultural context of the target culture remain critical to illuminate the potential censored nature of a practice.
Such considerations are key in the context of sexual minority politics that interests us here. One last point worth addressing regarding the analysis of censorship in the context of translation, is a lack of visibility of the link between the two.
Given the slippery nature of translasorship, as underlined by Billiani Billiani 3 , prior censorship is explored here in light of the distinction Toury Toury 82 makes between preliminary and operational norms of translation. Preventive translasorship can be operative through preliminary norms in the very process of selection of texts to be translated Wolf In such situations, there is a cultural blockage despite an attempt from a source agent — an author or a publisher, for instance — to import the cultural product.
Once preliminary norms have allowed for a work to be selected for translation, operational norms can then be the locus of censorship.
In the case of multisemiotic texts i. Further, in the perspective adopted here, illustrations fall under the broader category of intersemiotic translation. The corpus under study is relevant in many respects when considering censorship. First, case studies of translation of gay-themed literary works have shown censorship often plays an important role in shaping the translation of such texts Baer and Massardier-Kenney 87 , with alterations ranging from deletion and substitution, to toning down gay thematics or adapting them Tyulenev Second, when dealt with, translasorship or the circulation and translation of LGBTQ works is generally investigated in works of fiction for adults  and very seldom in literature for the youth.
When the target readers are children, the original work is often altered to better adjust to the literary, social, and moral standards of the target culture, and censorship is often motivated by a desire to protect the vulnerable Merkle A further dimension to consider when turning to picture books in particular is their visual qualities.
Censorship needs to be investigated in relation to this specificity Oittinen It is true that because of financial constraints, multisemiotic texts tend to be co-produced in order to lower the cost of translation Jobe ; in that case, the visuals remain the same. But for adaptations, the visuals can be altered, which makes this worthy of attention.
Equally important is the translation of the text into visuals. As a contribution to this larger project, the present reflexion considers works similar to And Tango Makes Three in terms of topic, format, and target readers. The corpus therefore consists of the picture books featuring same-sex couples published in these two languages until now  for children up to the age of eight,  with a particular interest in the titles published by US or French presses.
Picture books offer a solid basis for this study: they are one of the most published types of books for children White 18; Milliot  ; Nikolajeva and they are a sensitive issue in both cultures because of the age of their target readers. The focus is on the reception and inclusion of this type of literature within the two cultures. The focus on the reception of the corpus is tied to the exploration of the different forms of censorship at play in the publication of those books in France, be they originals or translations.
More generally, the essay interrogates the notion of censorship by locating certain cultural or literary practices in the context in which they occurred; among those practices, the extent to which a culture is open to translating certain texts Toury 82 or the alteration of the visuals of a multisemiotic text in an adaptation.
As a starting point, the analysis charts the production and publication of the corpus in the Francophone and Anglophone cultures. After this contrastive analysis, the reception of those works in France is analysed, highlighting the different forms censorship took. The challenges received by the corpus in France leads us to concentrate on one work in particular in the French culture: Tango a deux papas et pourquoi pas? The focus is mainly on the alteration of visuals that leads to the silencing of the homosexual relationship between the two male penguins present in the original text.
Such a discussion is linked to the more general reflexion on the boundaries of the notion of censorship. The corpus — i. First I address similarities and then focus on the noticeable differences. In both Anglophone and Francophone cultures, publishers, journalists and academics lament the scarcity of inclusive picture books available for young readers and more particularly picture books featuring same-sex couples.
In June of , Kisby , a senior lecturer in English Education, stressed the paucity of picture books challenging conventions and offering a representation of diverse families for young readers.
Nonetheless, in recent years, both cultures have seen the emergence of more inclusive types of picture books, notably as regards the composition of the nuclear family and same-sex parenting. Hall draws our attention to this phenomenon in the United States.
This idea is echoed by the owner of a bookstore in Bordeaux see note 11 , France, who nevertheless qualifies this statement by making clear that overall the increase has been insignificant and is mostly due to a few publishers trying to capitalize on the passing of the law on same-sex marriage. From a synchronic perspective, the number of picture books featuring same-sex couples published in English in Anglophone countries is indeed small compared to the total number of picture books published in the same language, with around only fifty titles Sunderland and McGlashan The same remark applies to the number of picture books with the same topic published in French in Francophone cultures as compared to the total number of picture books available in French, with only twenty or so books.
Thus, overall the number of books on the topic is insignificant in either language. Rare as these picture books may be, a pattern does emerge in terms of their countries of origin in both cultures: among Anglophone cultures, mainly US publishers have been publishing such books, and among Francophone cultures, mainly French publishers have. Among these books, the number of translated picture books into French or into English is also remarkably low in both cultures.
And the fast-growing French publisher Auzou, which has only recently specialized in juvenile literature, published the translation into French of a picture book from New Zealand, Milly Molly and Different Dads one year later, in ; more recently, in , Auzou translated one of its own French title Camille veut une nouvelle famille into English.
Picture books featuring same-sex couples translated from language X into English. Picture books featuring same-sex couples translated or adapted from English into French . The reason for this asymmetry is mainly cultural.
Thus, unsurprisingly, the United Kingdom and the United States imported one and only one title featuring a same-sex couple respectively. What is more surprising and worth noting is that France — and French-Canada incidentally — for which the translation of books from English plays a prominent role in the publishing industry, did not import this particular type of picture book.
Thus, picture books featuring same-sex couples do not travel well between France and the United States in either direction. The books on the topic in the two cultures, scarce as their number may be, share another interesting characteristic when it comes to the audience they target: when consulting several reliable sources, one realizes that there are discrepancies in the age recommended for the same reference.
This variation in the age recommendations is proof of the challenge the question of age appropriateness for these books poses in each culture and between cultures. The discrepancies also betray the conservative outlook sometimes adopted on the question.
Tables 3 and 4 below  feature a handful of books of the corpus that have been selected because they are representative of the discrepancies just mentioned. But there are times when there is a conflict between the ages recommended for the same work. This is illustrated by Jean a deux mamans or And Tango Makes Three , recommended for pre-school versus primary school children depending on the source selected.
There are also cases when a different edition of the same work recommends another audience for it. Noticeable also are the discrepancies existing between the original and its translation. The source text was intended for children aged , as mentioned at the back of the book. The translation in French, on the other hand, bears no age recommendation and the age target mentioned varies depending on the sources consulted: Memento recommends it for children aged 3 and up and WorldCat for children in primary and secondary school.
Recommended audiences for picture books featuring same-sex couples in French. Recommended audiences for picture books featuring same-sex couples in English. One last notable feature shared by the Anglophone and Francophone picture books of the corpus concerns their characterization, which places same-sex couples at the centre of the plot and upholds homonormativity.
First, the same-sex couples represented in these stories are generally the main protagonists and the story revolves around them Crisp In both picture books, the main focus of the story is not the same-sex couple.
The fact that characters are lesbians is incidental to the story, as a way of showing that same-sex relationships are part of life and do not deserve more attention than other types of relationships. The other shared characteristic of the books in the two cultures is their adherence to the homonormative subject.
Minne 93 points to the small number of Anglophone picture books featuring interracial couples, a tendency that also holds true for picture books in French.
Furthermore, except for the very recent French Canadian Ils sont… , telling the story of two old men united by a life-long love, all the picture books in French exclude families without children. This tendency Lester identified in portrayals that favour gender binarism or normative prescriptions of femininity , applies to our corpus in French.
Gender binarism is another manifestation of gender conformity. The perfect example is Jean a deux mamans , which conforms to prescribed gender roles, despite its groundbreaking aspects. Le voyage de June and Ulysse et Alice stands out in both respects. These picture books also have their own specificities, especially in terms of their timeline of publication, and of their storyline and characterization.
Evidently, no picture book featuring homosexual or lesbian couples targeting the age group selected were published there or in any Francophone country prior to The very first picture book on the topic published in French in Canada, Ulysse et Alice , dates back to The second major difference between picture books featuring same-sex couples in the two cultures concerns some aspects of their storyline and characterization.
This is somewhat revealing of the more general approach each culture adopts towards the topic. In the picture books published in France or in French, the way the narrative mode tends to be less direct, either because the story resorts to the fairy-tale topos or because it features animal characters. As for stories on the topic featuring animal characters, this is the rule rather than the exception in French.
Therefore, only one of the works authored in the United States featured anthropomorphized animals originally. Therefore, the picture books published in France we are considering here are generally more conservative in their characterization than the US picture books. We will come back to that.
Giving children access to all varieties of literature is extremely important for their success. Educators, parents, and community members should help students develop a love and passion for reading. Not only is reading literature important in developing cognitive skills to be able to succeed in a school or work setting, but it is valuable for other reasons as well. Although there are countless values in exposing children to literature, Donna Norton identifies the value of literature for young people in her book Through the Eyes of a Child. This strengthens the cognitive developmental domain as it encourages deeper thought about literature.
You've discovered a title that's missing from our library. Can you help donate a copy? When you buy books using these links the Internet Archive may earn a small commission. Open Library is a project of the Internet Archive , a c 3 non-profit. See more about this book on Archive. At New York City's Central Park Zoo, two male penguins fall in love and start a family by taking turns sitting on an abandoned egg until it hatches. Previews available in: English.
Written by Peter Parnell and Justin Richardson, it is a true story covering six years of the lives of the penguin pair. The story begins when the two penguins formed a couple and were given a fertilized egg to nurture. They duly did their duty until Tango - a baby penguin - was hatched. However, as this And Tango Makes Three essay will demonstrate, the book caused a considerable amount of controversy. In , for example, the American Library Association received close to formal requests for the book to be removed from libraries Suhr 7. One of the most convincing representations for removing the book related to the fact the penguins were both male and their pairing was of a homosexual nature Mitrano
And Tango Makes Three, this Classic Board Book edition is the perfect size for small hands. BOOKS APPEREANCE. Review READ PDF And Tango Makes Three.
Restricted access to the most recent articles in subscription journals was reinstated on January 12, More informations. Censoring a book is common in the United States. This essay is a reflexion on the publication and reception of Francophone picture books on the topic — originals and translations.
About Map Blog Contact. They bowed to each other. Richardson lectures to parents and teachers on parenting and the sexual development of children.
Find out more about And Tango Makes Three by Justin Richardson, Peter Parnell, Henry Cole at Simon & Schuster. Read book reviews & excerpts, watch author.
The heartwarming true story of two penguins who create a nontraditional family is now available in a sturdy board book edition. At the penguin house at the Central Park Zoo, two penguins named Roy and Silo were a little bit different from the others. But their desire for a family was the same. And with the help of a kindly zookeeper, Roy and Silo got the chance to welcome a baby penguin of their very own. Richardson lectures to parents and teachers on parenting and the sexual development of children.
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