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The Taking And Display Of Human Body Parts As Trophies By Amerindians Pdf Online

the taking and display of human body parts as trophies by amerindians pdf online

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Large Llamas with Silver Shoes

About Journal of the North Atlantic. Journal of the North Atlantic, Special Volume 9 : 35— Full-text pdf Accessible only to subscribers.

To subscribe click here. Journal of the North Atlantic I. Armit and F. Subsequent rescue excavations revealed a series of extraordinarily well-preserved drystone buildings set into the sand dunes, dating from around the second century BC to the mid-third century AD Armit At the core of the complex was an original pair of conjoined wheelhouses; one of which had apparently remained unfinished Fig.

Like other wheelhouses, the principal original building at Cnip Structure 1 was a drystone roundhouse with an interior space dominated by a central hearth, and a periphery divided into a series of equally sized bays. The bays were separated by substantial stone piers which in plan resemble the spokes of a wheel. It was also typical in being sunk into a natural sand dune which would have made the site quite inconspicuous within the coastal machair landscape.

Osteoarchaeological reanalysis and AMS dating now provide a broader cultural context for these remains and indicate that at least one adult cranium was brought to the site more than a thousand years after the death of the individual to whom it had belonged.

Location map showing main sites discussed in the text. Journal of the North Atlantic 36 I. Shapland Special Volume 9 monumental and accomplished construction. In this sense, wheelhouses perpetuated the domestic monumentality of the broch towers and other Atlantic roundhouses which characterized the earlier part of the Iron Age in this region Armit The excavations at Cnip provided the opportunity to dissect these Iron Age buildings in considerable detail, and in doing so, a number of unusual objects were found, including several deliberate deposits of animal remains and four isolated pieces of human bone.

Aside from a single tibia fragment, the latter were all fragments of human crania, suggesting a special interest in the head. At the time when the full publication of the site was being completed, the human remains had become misplaced and, in the absence of photographs or drawings, could only be published on the basis of earlier verbal descriptions McSweeney Since re-appearing, however, as well as being subject to osteological reanalysis, two of the fragments have been re-dated as part of a broader AMS dating program focused on wider treatments of the human body in Iron Age Atlantic Scotland Tucker and Armit , and a great deal of comparative work has been carried out on the wider context of mortuary practice in the region e.

The remains also have relevance to wider studies of the social role of human body parts, and especially the head, in prehistoric Europe e. This paper revisits the Cnip fragments in the light of recent work, to examine what more they Figure 2.

Simplified plan of the Cnip wheelhouse complex in its secondary phase of occupation Phase 2. The distinctive wheel-like plan of Structure 1 is still clearly visible. The perforated cranial fragment HB03 was found in the entrance-way to Structure 4 and the adult human frontal HB01 was found in a shallow scoop under the floor of Structure 3. The descriptions of the bones themselves and their contextual associations will be kept to a minimum as full details are provided in the initial report Armit , McSweeney Heads in the Sand Although the assemblage is small, especially when compared with the many thousands of animal bones recovered from the excavations at Cnip, each cranial fragment tells a rather different story about attitudes to the human body, and specifically the head.

In this section, each of the three human skull fragments is discussed in turn before returning to a broader consideration of attitudes to the dead and their deposition in domestic spaces. Curation and Display?

The first fragment is a sub-triangular piece of adult human parietal HB03 found within deposits which had built up at the entrance to Structure 4, an oval structure of fairly accomplished masonry which formed one of two main foci of the settlement in Phase 2, after the original wheelhouse had become unstable.

It is possible that the fragment split during drilling McSweeney The fragment is neatly broken, or perhaps cut, along the line of the perforation. Rodent gnaw marks are also visible on the posterior edge of the exterior surface, suggesting that the fragment or indeed whole body lay exposed for a period shortly after death. The two sigma range of cal. Given the dates for Phase 3 ca.

AD — , it is likely that the Figure 3. Map showing the distribution of disarticulated human remains from domestic sites in Atlantic Scotland. Journal of the North Atlantic 38 I.

Shapland Special Volume 9 true date of this fragment lies in the earlier half of its range. When initially reported, the only close parallel for this worked human bone was a cranial fragment from the entrance to the complex Atlantic roundhouse of Hillhead in Caithness Fig.

However, a recently obtained AMS date of cal. Within the last few years, two other perforated crania have been recognized Shapland and Armit , Tucker The first is another human parietal with a single central perforation from the rock-shelter at Fiskavaig, on Skye Birch Fig. In a further parallel with the Cnip fragment, the internal surface of this bone Figure 4.

Table 1. AMS dates for the Cnip cranial fragments obtained during the dating program and from burials on Cnip Headland dates for the Cnip Headland burials are recalibrated based on information published in Dunwell et al. Calibrated date at Lab no. Perforated cranial fragments from: A. Hillhead, Caithness parietal bone , B. Fiskavaig, Skye parietal bone , and C. In this case, it seems highly improbable that these represent abortive attempts at drilling through, and their purpose may be either decorative or in some way related to the intended purpose of the object.

An AMS date of cal. Finally, there may be one further example from antiquarian excavations at Burghead promontory fort, a major Pictish center in Moray.

Here a perforated cranial fragment was apparently found along with other human bones below the rampart MacDonald , and thus probably dated to the early mid-first millennium AD. However, the fragment is lost, and the identification cannot be confirmed.

What we appear to have, therefore, is evidence for an enduring practice involving the curation and modification of the human head which persisted throughout most of the first millennium AD in Atlantic Scotland.

Three of the four drilled fragments so far discovered represent parietal bones, and one a frontal bone. These areas of the cranium provide the flattest and most even fragments for perforation; interestingly, parietals and frontals were also the human bones most commonly deposited on settlement sites throughout the long Iron Age in Atlantic Scotland Tucker Aside from the basic concept of perforating a cranial platelet, the similarities in the size and shape of the drill-holes suggest a fairly standardized approach to the procedure, and the use of similar tools such as bone awls.

Despite its long duration, however, it would appear that the practice was either infrequently carried out, or else that the modified bones very seldom found their way into contexts where they can be archaeologically recovered.

Sites in this region commonly yield substantial bone assemblages, yet only four perforated platelets are definitely attested. Given the difficulty in accessing the internal surfaces of these skulls in order to produce the characteristically neat drill-holes, it seems highly probable that the platelets had already been detached from the cranium prior to working.

It also seems likely that the bone would have been de-fleshed before drilling began, as the working and display of fleshed cranial fragments would have had obvious drawbacks. However, it must have remained sufficiently fresh not simply to shatter as completely dry bone has a tendency to do upon drilling although this may of course have been precisely the fate of the Cnip example.

One possibility, therefore, is that these platelets were taken from the skulls of individuals who had been subject to excarnation, perhaps as part of normative funerary rites cf.

The gnaw marks present on the Cnip example would seem to be a useful piece of corroborating evidence for this theory. Of particular relevance here, however, is the recent observation that a large section of bone appears to have been deliberately removed from one Iron Age cranium soon after death Fig. The size and shape of the missing fragment is highly reminiscent of the perforated platelets discussed above.

Given the intact nature of this cranium at the time the bone was removed, and the relatively small number of individuals who appear to have been deposited at MacArthur Cave, it seems quite likely that the platelet was taken from a known individual. Even if this is not the case, the MacArthur Cave find may strengthen the suggestion that these perforated platelets represent some form of ancestral relic or memento, forming a tangible link with the recently deceased, rather than trophies taken from the heads of outsiders.

This interpretation is particularly interesting in view of the clear evidence for violent human trophy taking elsewhere in the Scottish Iron Age e. These latter examples, however, are perforated near the edge of the bone, rather than at its center, and we can exclude this functional suggestion for the Atlantic Scottish series.

Further afield, skulls perforated Journal of the North Atlantic 40 I. Shapland Special Volume 9 vidual. If we are right in believing that they derive from secondary funerary rites, then the likelihood must be that they played a role in acts of remembrance associated either with deceased individuals or with the generalized community of ancestors. Tool Use or Trepanation? The second piece of human bone from Cnip is a roughly triangular cranial fragment HB02 recovered from behind the sand-revetted wall of Structure 8, a rectilinear structure which formed the last domestic building at Cnip Phase 3 and which was probably constructed sometime around the beginning of the 2nd century AD Armit The bone comes from an adult cranium, has a maximum length of 6.

Although the surviving portion bears no with large iron nails have been found on a number of Iron Age sites in southern France, where they are generally interpreted as human trophies e. The purpose of the perforated cranial fragments remains unclear.

The existence of the holes suggests that they were either suspended for display, or else sewn into garments or fabrics. The lack of clear wear-patterning does not suggest any routine, day-to-day usage. The occurrence of the Cnip and Hillhead finds amid entrance deposits might suggest suspension above the door-way. Given its funerary context, the Dounreay fragment may have had a particular link perhaps genealogical to a specific indi- Figure 6.

Shapland Special Volume 9 41 various structures at Cnip during construction, and it is possible that this fragment too was a deliberate deposit. However, there was no specific evidence to confirm this. Back from the Dead The final fragment found at Cnip comprised a partial human cranium HB01 deliberately placed in a shallow scoop in the sand below Structure 3, a small cell attached to the main wheelhouse Fig.

It was almost certainly intended as a foundation deposit for the cell. Like the other fragments, it dates to Phase 2 of occupation, in the 1st century AD. The bones were poorly preserved and consisted of a fragmented frontal bone and a few surrounding cranial fragments from an adult, possibly a male judging by the prominent brow ridges Bass Placed alongside the skull were a number of other objects, comprising two sherds of pottery, one with a zigzag cordon, and a second cranial fragment, which may be human but is more likely to derive from an animal.

The latter bone had gnaw-marks suggesting that it had been left exposed and accessible to carnivores when fresh. This rather heterogeneous collection was accompanied by a smooth, rounded stone, which seemed to echo the shape of the skull itself, and which was quite unlike the usual angular building stones found around the site.

This collection of objects was not the only special deposit sign of perforation, one edge was artificially shaped, having been deliberately bevelled externally and internally, perhaps by scraping with an iron knife, into a smooth convex shape. Along the exterior surface, parallel to the bevelled edge, a series of shallow scoops had been scraped into the bone, and these seem originally to have extended beyond the broken edges of the fragment.

There are also numerous shallow cut marks on the external surface such as might be expected in a case of scalping. It seems possible, then, that the head was deliberately defleshed before a portion was detached and modified into some form of scraping implement.

An alternative possibility is that the marks derive from an unsuccessful trepanation there is of course no sign of healing , but the presence of both internal as well as external bevelling of the cut edge would necessarily rule this possibility out.

The marks on the exterior surface of this bone bear little resemblance to other known Iron Age European trepanations, which were mostly drilled rather than scraped Roberts and McKinley Since it was deposited during the construction of the Structure 8 wall, the bone pre-dates the Phase 3 occupation, and the individual most likely died during the preceding Phase 2 occupation i.

Large Llamas with Silver Shoes

About Journal of the North Atlantic. Journal of the North Atlantic, Special Volume 9 : 35— Full-text pdf Accessible only to subscribers. To subscribe click here. Journal of the North Atlantic I. Armit and F. Subsequent rescue excavations revealed a series of extraordinarily well-preserved drystone buildings set into the sand dunes, dating from around the second century BC to the mid-third century AD Armit

We present here evidence for an early Holocene case of decapitation in the New World Burial 26 , found in the rock shelter of Lapa do Santo in Lapa do Santo is an archaeological site located in the Lagoa Santa karst in east-central Brazil with evidence of human occupation dating as far back as An ultra-filtered AMS age determination on a fragment of the sphenoid provided an age range of 9. The interment was composed of an articulated cranium, mandible and first six cervical vertebrae. Cut marks with a v-shaped profile were observed in the mandible and sixth cervical vertebra.

the taking and display of human body parts as trophies by amerindians pdf online

The Amerindian practice of taking and displaying various human body parts as trophies The Handbook of Texas Online. nebraskansforjustice.org​.


Ancient Mississippian Trophy-Taking

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Scalping is the act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp , with hair attached, from the head, and generally occurred in warfare with the scalp being a trophy. Scalping independently developed in various cultures in both the Old and New Worlds. In England in , Earl Godwin , father of Harold Godwinson , was reportedly responsible for scalping his enemies, among whom was Alfred Aetheling. According to the ancient Abingdon manuscript , 'some of them were blinded, some maimed, some scalped.

Appropriating and manipulating human body parts was an important component of the belief system throughout much of the world. In eastern North America, Mississippian trophy-taking behavior was predicated on beliefs that focused on human life forces believed to reside in body elements, especially the head and scalp. Archaeologists have generally neglected to apprehend the potent meanings of trophy-taking behavior as a component of indigenous belief systems.

Geoffrey McCafferty is professor of archaeology at the University of Calgary.

Introduction to Human Trophy Taking

The Amerindian practice of taking and displaying various human body parts as trophies has long held the imaginations of both the public and scholars alike. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

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Museum Standards Pdf The following standards for museum exhibitions are organized in six major categories followed by descriptions of what constitutes. PDF format from our downloads page of this website. Check out the new MSA Marketplace! The Marketplace is a first-of-its-kind, online, wholesale marketplace for nonprofit retailers. The ANA serves the academic community, collectors and the general public with an interest in numismatics.

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Я смогу ей объяснить. Она поймет. Честь. Страна. Однако в списке было еще одно сообщение, которого он пока не видел и которое никогда не смог бы объяснить. Дрожащей рукой он дал команду вывести на экран последнее сообщение. ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Коммандер опустил голову.

 Поторопись, - крикнул ей вдогонку Стратмор, - и ты еще успеешь к ночи попасть в Смоки-Маунтинс. От неожиданности Сьюзан застыла на месте.

Честь. Страна. Однако в списке было еще одно сообщение, которого он пока не видел и которое никогда не смог бы объяснить.

 Дэвид! - крикнула.  - Что… Но было уже поздно. Дэвид положил трубку. Она долго лежала без сна, ожидая его звонка. Но телефон молчал.

The Oldest Case of Decapitation in the New World (Lapa do Santo, East-Central Brazil)

Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул.

Не нужно было так резко с ней говорить. Но у него не выдержали нервы. Он слишком долго говорил ей полуправду: просто есть вещи, о которых она ничего не знала, и он молил Бога, чтобы не узнала. - Прости меня, - сказал он, стараясь говорить как можно мягче.  - Расскажи, что с тобой случилось.

Теперь он уже бежал по узкому проходу.

 Он работает на Монокле, - пояснил Смит.  - Посылает сообщение о том, что Танкадо ликвидирован. Сьюзан повернулась к Беккеру и усмехнулась: - Похоже, у этого Халохота дурная привычка сообщать об убийстве, когда жертва еще дышит.

Это был тот самый парень, за которым он гнался от автобусной остановки. Беккер мрачно оглядел море красно-бело-синих причесок. - Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров.

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