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Social Psychology Chapter
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. State and municipal governments and nongovernmental entities provide a broad range of social services designed to prevent or treat family violence. These services include counseling and advocacy for victims of abuse; family and caregiver support programs; alternative living arrangements, including out-of-home placement for children, protective guardianship for abused elders, and shelters for battered women; educational programs for those at risk of abusing or being abused; intensive service programs to maintain families at risk of losing their child; and individual service programs in both family and placement settings.
Social service interventions may consist of casework as well as therapeutic services designed to provide parenting education, child and family counseling, and family support. Social service interventions also may include concrete services such as income support or material aid, institutional placement, mental health services, in-home health services, supervision, education, transportation, housing, medical services, legal services, in-home assistance, socialization, nutrition, and child and respite care.
The scope and intensity of casework, therapeutic services, and concrete assistance to children and adults in family violence interventions are often not well documented, and they may vary within and between intervention programs. As a result, similar interventions such as parenting practice and family support services may offer very different kinds of services depending on the resources available in the community and the extent to which the clients can gain access to available services.
Some social service interventions such as child protective services are directly administered by state agencies; some services such as parenting education and family support programs are funded by government agencies but are. All of these interventions are designed to address the social support and safety needs of individuals and families, but they often have different focal points in meeting the needs of their clients.
Their goals include the protection of children and vulnerable adults; the enhancement of parents' ability to support and care for their children; the preservation of families; and the development of resources and networks to enhance family functioning, the safety of women, and the care of children and the elderly.
Although treatment and prevention interventions for child maltreatment, domestic violence, and elder abuse have drawn on a series of theoretical frameworks over the past three decades, the connections between interventions and research are often uncertain and ambiguous.
Their development has involved trial-and-error experiments in which ideas gain prominence for a short time, only to fade when disappointing results are documented Wolf, The interventions have focused on different levels—the individual, the family, the neighborhood, and the social culture—each providing a different set of outcomes of interest, complicating the tasks of designing interventions and evaluating their effects.
In addition to shifts in theoretical frameworks and relevant outcomes, evaluations of social service interventions have been complicated by two other significant factors: 1 variations in programs that are viewed as a single intervention and 2 differences in the population of children or adults who receive the social services. Conflicting results in evaluation research studies thus may reflect these program differences such as the intensity or scope of services or the training of service personnel or variations in the personal histories or types of problems experienced by the clients served.
This chapter reviews social service interventions and the available evaluations of them, using the selection criteria discussed in Chapter 1 , first for child maltreatment, then for domestic violence, and finally for elder abuse. Although this discussion of social service approaches to addressing family violence identifies specific interventions, these are far from distinct strategies. There is substantial overlap in the specific services provided by each intervention—which raises the critical cross-cutting question of which elements in this set of interventions are most effective in preventing and treating family violence.
Nevertheless, the specific interventions discussed in this chapter have been identified by the field, and the evaluation literature has evolved from these services as they are identified. For this reason, the committee has retained these somewhat arbitrary distinctions. Although the interventions are described in discrete categories, the individual interventions are part of a continuum of services available to victims and their families.
The interventions discussed in one section may therefore be relevant in other sections of the chapter and to interventions discussed in the chapters on legal and health care interventions. Research points to the interaction of multiple factors in the maltreatment of children; the interaction of these factors has been described in a variety of theoretical models that have evolved over the past decade National Research Council, a,b.
Current models include a the ecological models of Belsky and Garbarino, based on the original conceptions of Ure Bronfenbrenner Belsky, ; Garbarino, ; b the transitional model, which regards child maltreatment and maladaptive parenting as extreme ends of a continuum of interactions among social and cultural forces, parenting roles, and individual behavior Wolfe, , ; and c the transactional model of Cicchetti Cicchetti and Carlson, , based on Sameroff and Chandler's formulations, which focus on interactions among risk and protective factors in the social environment of the family.
All three approaches share underlying assumptions that individual characteristics of the child or parent are insufficient to explain the nature and emergence of child maltreatment; each group of models uses a different set of assumptions to examine the interactive processes, perceptions, stresses, and social supports in the family environment.
Theorists have considered specific factors that appear to play a significant role in the different models: social isolation DePanfilis, ; Kennedy, ; Ammerman, , stress Fanshel et al. Three decades of research and practice have shifted the focus of treatment and prevention interventions away from models based solely on individual pathology toward broader social ecological models, with a new emphasis on the social context of parent-child relationships Wolfe, Although the focus of concern is the child victim, interventions in this area often target the parent usually the mother , under the assumption that behavior change in the parent will protect the child.
Such activities include parent support groups, parent education, home visiting, mental health, and other concrete social support and therapeutic services. Programs targeting children include skill-building around resistance to maltreatment, conflict management skills, and therapeutic interventions. Table lists some major outcomes expected from social service interventions, many of which lack reliable measures.
Most treatment and prevention interventions do not include data related to child maltreatment as an outcome measure, and those that do usually rely on reports of child abuse and neglect rather than observations of parent-child interactions. Many of the outcomes highlighted in the table are interrelated; any single intervention may have several intended outcomes for parents, for children, or for both.
The relationships among outcomes, such as changes in mental health,. Improved parenting skills, knowledge of child development, and more realistic expectations for child behavior. Changes in cognitive or social skills may or may not be accompanied by behavioral changes such as use of community resources ; both are thought to be highly influenced by social context and cultural forces.
For example, individuals are unlikely to seek out formal or informal services that have consistently been unavailable or unreliable in their family networks or neighborhoods. Six social service interventions for child maltreatment are reviewed in the sections that follow: 1 parenting practices and family support services, 2 school-based sexual abuse prevention, 3 child protective services investigation and casework, 4 intensive family preservation services, 5 child placement services, and 6 individualized service programs.
The sections are keyed to the appendix tables that appear at the end of the chapter. Researchers have suggested that families who are socially isolated and lack social support may be more prone to neglect than matched comparison samples Belsky, , ; Belsky and Vondra, ; Bronfenbrenner ; Cicchetti, ; Rizley and Cicchetti, ; Thompson, , ; Wolfe, , A number of strategies for intervention have been described and evaluated in the research literature, including 1 individual social support interventions, such as lay counseling, in-home education and parent aide programs, and parent education support group interventions; 2 multiservice interventions that match services to the specific needs of families; 3 risk assessment interventions that assess the strength of the family social support systems; 4 social skills training that seeks to improve a family's ability to gain access to appropriate resources and services see Table ; and 5 intensive family preservation services, which provide family support counseling and referrals during periods of crisis.
These interventions are discussed below in terms of what is known about the outcomes associated with different strategies. Another strategy for preventive intervention, the home visitation program, is usually administered by public health departments and is discussed in Chapter 6 in our review of health care interventions. Variations in the selection of relevant outcomes as well as differences in the service and evaluation designs make it difficult to compare the results of social service interventions in the area of child maltreatment.
There is a lack of consensus about the definition of neglect Dubowitz et al. Most of the evaluations in this area use relatively limited sample sizes, and few have control group comparisons DePanfilis, The variety of outcomes measured includes maltreatment and placement rates, client motivation to change neglecting conditions, childrearing practices, parents' personal care, and child outcomes in domains such as cognitive, language, verbal, and social skills DePanfilis, Although reducing child maltreatment is the ultimate goal for most interventions, proxy outcomes, such as measures of improved child health and emotional and social adjustment, are often used to measure an intervention's effectiveness.
Official reports of child abuse and neglect are often viewed as unreliable indicators, because incidents may not be reported to authorities, or may be falsely reported, or because surveillance bias may affect reports in treatment families who are in close contact with social services programs.
In addition, variations in the components, duration, and intensity of treatment services and the length of follow-up periods confound efforts to identify particularly promising interventions. Controlled designs of multiservice interventions. Used to evaluate the quantity and quality of a family's linkages with formal and informal supportive resources outside the family system.
Each model is structured somewhat differently, but all seek to identify intervention targets for strengthening the social network of families. Operates from a family empowerment philosophy and includes multiple types of social support mixed with professional interventions.
Services may include casework services, support groups, parent training, support by lay therapists or parent aides, memberships in recreational centers, transportation, and homemaker services. Individually planned service mixes seek to match services to the specific needs of families. Offer information and role modeling as well as social support to impoverished families. Parent groups provide information on basic child care skills, problem solving, home management, and social interaction skills.
Seeks to increase the effectiveness of other interventions geared to serve specific social support functions. Researchers have suggested that neglectful parents are often handicapped by a lack of social skills that might enable them to utilize community support services.
Table 4A-1 lists 15 evaluations on increasing social support that meet the committee's criteria for inclusion. The table includes studies that examine parenting education and social support interventions for families that experience. Reduced reported maltreatment. Three quasi-experimental evaluations with reports of child maltreatment as an outcome measure indicate no statistically significant difference in the rate of reports of abuse and neglect for experimental versus comparison groups following treatment Barth et al.
Some evaluators have used the standardized Child Abuse Potential Inventory CAPI as a proxy outcome to assess the likelihood that parents will abuse their children again.
Two evaluations of the Child Parent Enrichment Project, for example, found that treatment-group parents had significantly lower CAPI scores post-treatment, relative to pretreatment and relative to control parents Barth et al. Parental competence and skills. Another outcome thought to enhance child well-being is improved parental competence. Seven of nine studies testing gains in parenting competence indicate positive effects of interventions to reduce child neglect Burch and Mohr, ; Egan, ; Gaudin et al.
One study did not find enhanced parenting skills in treatment groups relative to comparison groups Resnick, A second study of parenting skills at home and in laboratory observation of parent-child interactions, which was the only study to explicitly include fathers, also found no reliable change pre- to postintervention. The authors noted that aversive behavior scores for fathers in the treatment group did not differ significantly from scores of the nondistressed fathers in the no-treatment control group Reid et al.
Methodological factors, such as the use of observed effects versus self-report data and reliance on project-developed instruments rather than standardized assessment tools, discourage the comparison of these results with other studies. An evaluation was conducted of an intervention designed to change parental perceptions and expectations, to teach relaxation procedures to mediate stress and anger, and to train parents in problem-solving skills Whiteman et al.
The results indicate that all three individual intervention strategies improved parents' scores on affection, discipline, and empathy indexes relative to no-treatment control parents. A composite intervention, which combined all three strategies, produced the largest change in index scores. Findings from less rigorous studies, which did not meet the committee's selection criteria, examined the effect of teaching social skills to parents at risk of. Three studies report that parent support groups that offer social skills and problem-solving training are more successful with neglectful parents than programs offering more general content on child development Daro, ; Gaudin et al.
In a study of the Homebuilders program, the behavioral intervention to teach social skills was identified as an essential component Kinney et al. Parental mental health. New theoretical models that emphasize the interactions among social context, mental health, and family functioning have emerged in interventions for child maltreatment, focusing on the need to improve parental self-esteem, stress management, and the regulation of impulsive behaviors in order to enhance parental usually the mother's abilities to manage children through everyday care and discipline Wolfe, Since parental apathy and impulsivity are commonly associated with caregiver behaviors in cases of child neglect Polansky, , a number of studies hypothesize that improving parents' mental health will result in reduced child neglect.
The relevant outcome in this approach is the intervention's ability to produce beneficial changes in the parents' mental health relative to comparison groups, including reduction of depression and negative effects of life stress and enhanced self-esteem.
Six studies report at least short-term improvements in scores on standardized measures for treatment parents in these areas Barth et al. However, the only study that included long-term follow-up reported that treatment gains were not maintained after a one-year interval, and the hypothesized connection between short-term competence enhancement and long-term prevention of maltreating behaviors lacked empirical support Resnick, Social support.
Social support has been described as the social relationships that provide or can potentially provide material and interpersonal resources that are of value to the recipient Thompson, The absence or presence of social support and involvement in social networks has been identified as an important risk factor for abusive families, especially in cases of neglect. Social support can provide a variety of services that help reduce stress in family life, including individual and family counseling, advice on parenting practices, child and respite care, financial and housing assistance, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, skill acquisition, and access to information and services.
A number of evaluations use social network assessment tools to determine if interventions can reduce social isolation for neglectful families, thereby decreasing propensity for neglectful behavior Barth et al. Two found no beneficial results in social support Barth et al. Schinke et al. A sixth study found initial improvement in social support that deteriorated over time Resnick, These results have not yet been able to suggest that network assessments will lead to more effective interventions or improved treatment outcomes DePanfilis, However, one less rigorous recent study suggests that collecting data on perceived social support, the reported frequency of use, and satisfaction with different types of support may provide better indicators of social support than structural features alone Tracy and Abell, Some research has focused on the role of ''natural helpers"—individuals who supplement the efforts of formal social service agents and who have connections to the values and norms of the community in the social environment of distressed families Collins and Pancoast, ; Thompson, , The efficacy of natural helpers in counteracting the multiple stresses of disadvantaged communities is not well understood; some research has suggested that creating a web of social support for families at risk of abuse or neglect may require connections with self-help groups such as Parents Anonymous or family support centers that are especially knowledgeable about the problems of child maltreatment and can provide counseling and advice outside the context of everyday social relationships Thompson, Home environments.
Your answers should be in your own words. Psychology Chapter 4. Simple solutions to hard problems. Question, Answer. Functional views seem to be sure that readers can see the national police authorities in the education policy studies. Start studying Psychology Chapter 2 test review answers.
Chapter 6 - Conformity and Deviance. How "good" conformity occurs when people privately accept their group's beliefs. How "bad" conformity occurs when people voices what their group wants them to. How "good" deviance occurs when people contribute new ideas to their group. How "bad" deviance occurs when people either rebel against or refuse to participate in their group. How groups can pressure their members to either conform or deviate. How and when deviants can persuade the group majority.
- Кто знает, какая разница между этими элементами. На лицах тех застыло недоумение. - Давайте же, ребята. -сказал Джабба. - Вы же учились в колледжах.
Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя. - Боже мой, Северная Дакота. Сокращенно NDAKOTA.
Родители согласились. Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися. Вскоре слава о фугуся-кисай, гениальном калеке, облетела Токио.
О кольце он позаботиться не успел, слова пришли сами. Именно это и нравилось ей в нем - спонтанность решений. Она надолго прижалась губами к его губам. Он обвил ее руками, и они сами собой начали стягивать с нее ночную рубашку. - Я понимаю это как знак согласия, - сказал он, и они не отрывались друг от друга всю ночь, согреваемые теплом камина.
А потом медленно скрылась из виду в клубах пара. - Отчаянный парень, - пробормотал Хейл себе под нос. Он знал, что задумал Чатрукьян.
Как трасса, на продолжение которой не хватило денег, улочка вдруг оборвалась. Перед ним была высокая стена, деревянная скамья и больше. Он посмотрел вверх, на крышу трехэтажного дома, развернулся и бросился назад, но почти тут же остановился.
- Чуточку. - Это как будто деление на ноль. - Что. - Деление на ноль, - сказала она, пробегая глазами остальные данные. - Средняя цена определяется как дробь - общая стоимость, деленная на число расшифровок.
Стратмор покачал головой: - Отнюдь. - Но… служба безопасности… что. Они сейчас здесь появятся.
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