File Name: performance parameters and characteristics of ic engine .zip
These specific standard parameters have been modified with copper alloy coated diesel engine with the aid of design of experiment by Taguchi with grey relational analysis optimization GRA method, for improving the IC engine performance and reducing the emissions.
The result shows modified copper chromium zirconium CuCr1Zr catalytic coated piston produces less emission and improves performance when compared to standard un-coated piston type engine.
In this investigation cotton seed oil is used as a bio- diesel and the piston and combustion chamber were coated with copper chromium zirconium material with a thickness of microns. Finally the results of the experiments were compared with un-coated engine and optimized parameters have been identified for catalytic coated modified IC engine using Taguchi with GRA approach.
IC engine is the main power source of automotive vehicles. The engine consists of many parts such as piston, cylinder head, cylinder block, etc.
Piston and cylinder head are the most important components of IC engine because the power of IC engine depends upon the combustion taking place in combustion chamber. It is located above the piston and bottom of the cylinder head. As the result of the combustion pollutants are produced. Combustion is burning of fuel combined with air. In this chemical process, fuel like hydro carbon combined with oxygen and produces harmful gases leading to air pollution.
During the combustion process, oxidization, does not occur properly. So, carbon monoxide is produced, and hydro carbon emission occur due to light load as the lean mixture 1 , So flame speed during the combustion may be too low or in-complete combustion may be occur 2 and hence emission level of HC, CO and NOx in the exhaust gas discharged into the atmosphere through tail pipe is higher compared to copper coated piston type engine. These gases cause many drawbacks to the society. To overcome this problem, catalytic material copper -chromium -zirconium is used in the form of -micron coating over the piston crown and combustion chamber walls.
The coating of piston and combustion chamber is done using plasma spraying process of thermal spraying technique. Rameshbabu et al. Winkler M. F et al. Jeyakumar et al. The experimental works were conducted in catalytic coated IC engine. The experiments are conducted based on taguchi orthogonal array OA. The experiments are conducted in cc kirlosker make multi fueled operated diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer and gas analyzer set up.
The setup enables to find the coated engine emission characteristics like carbon monoxide CO , hydro carbon HC and oxides of nitrogen NOx and the important coated engine performance like brake power BP , brake thermal efficiency Bth and torque. R et al. The main aim of the paper is to minimize the major diesel engine emissions like CO and HC. It measures the five emission gases, including hydrocarbons HC , carbon monoxide CO , and oxides of nitrogen NOx in the exhaust gas.
Ponnusamy 7 et al. The results showed that copper coated piston and combustion chamber engine reduces HC and CO emissions. He also carried out the investigation for different catalytic coating materials. Krzysztof et al. Studied the effects of plasma sprayed zirconium coatings on the piston 8. So, one of the promising technologies for improving IC engine performance and reducing the CO and HC emission is catalytic coating on piston and combustion chamber.
Since copper chromium and zirconium are less in cost compared to platinum, and also they are is a good catalyst material, these three materials combined in the form of alloys material CuCr1Zr , and used for coating. So in this investigation, copper -chromium -zirconium material was selected as the coating material is shown in Fig.
Piston, and Combustion chamber coated by plasma coating technique- The figure describe before and after coating Own Image -Photograph taken by corresponding author at the time of research work at Coimbatore.
To find the catalytic coated engine performance and emission parameters the following procedure is followed as shown in Fig. The plasma spray method is basically a thermal spraying coating process. The material to be coated is converted into molten stage by means of heat and sprayed to the surface to be coated and produce a coating. It is shown in Fig. Classification of Coating Process - The figure shown different type of thermal spray coating process.
The coating material impacts on the substrate surface and quickly cools forming a coating 9. The plasma coating method has been shown in Fig. This investigation intends to implement a similar kind of technology used in catalytic converter in the engine itself. This is archieved by coating the piston and chamber thereby making it possible to reduce a major amount of pollution emitted by the engine.
So, this investigation involves coating of piston and combustion chamber with a catalytic material. Copper-chromium-zirconium alloy is coated on the bottom side of engine cylinder head and the top side of piston crown to a thickness of microns. There are different methods of catalytic coating process for coating the piston and combustion chamber walls as shown in Fig. The plasma spray process is advised by many researchers 9 , 10 , 11 because of its performance, economy and eco friendly nature.
The surface roughness of the coating was measured using Mitutyo make Surf test SJ testing machine. Hence the surface roughness after coating has improved. Kadir Mert Doleker et al.
The results showed that that the thermal barrier coatings exhibit higher porosity D et al. Conducted investigation on partially stabilized zirconium coated piston with the thickness of , and microns. In this investigation the piston is coated with CuCr1Zr to a thickness of microns and it does not affect the compression ratio. The experimental set up consists of five different elements.
The five various elements are catalytic coated engine, eddy current dynamometer, gas analyzer, personnel computer and data acquisition system.
These elements are connected as shown in Figs. This set up is used for conducting the engine performance test and emission test. The engine can be operated by two fuels either by petrol or diesel. If the engine is operating in petrol fuel, the electronic control unit ECU is needed.
In this research, the engine is run by diesel fuel. Here, it operated with the help of injector and fuel pump FIP. Blending of Cotton Seed bio oil mixing with Diesel Fuel — The figure shown cotton seed bio oil stirring with diesel fuel and heating. Own Image -Photograph taken by corresponding author at the time of research work. In this investigation cotton seed oil is used as blended diesel fuel. Cotton seed oil is produced from the seed of the cotton plant, by crushing or by chemical solvent extraction process.
For commercial purpose, cottonseed oil is extracted through solvent extraction process. Cotton seed plant Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum is grown by farmers for the purpose of feeding animals, make cotton cloths, and produce cotton oil. The seed of cotton has a similar shape to sunflower seed.
Both seeds contains oil contaminants inside the hull. Using the chemical extraction process, the cotton seed oil is extracted from the kernel. Now-a-days due to high demand and shortages of crude oil, the cost of automotive vehicle fuel increases day by day 14 , So the cottonseed oil can be used as an alternative fuel for automotive vehicles. In the transesterification process one ester group is converted or interchanged into another ester group.
The converting reaction of cotton seed oil into biodiesel is called transesterification process is shown in Fig. In this process, methanol and alcohol combine with the triglyceride oil in the cotton seed under heat and sodium or potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Bio diesel and glycerol is produced through the chemical reaction. Ayegba, et al. After the sedimentation process, glycerol and bio diesel is separated. Transesterification Chemical Reaction-The figure describe the converting reaction of cotton seed oil into biodiesel by adding of methanol and one ester group converted into another ester group and glycerol.
Taguchi with grey relational analysis GRA is most suitable technique for multi-performance characteristics with minimum experimental work In the present investigation, taguchi technique with grey rational analysis method is used for finding the optimum engine parameters for coated IC engine. To find the optimum solution of a problem with minimum number of trails, taguchi technique is the most preferable method.
This technique uses an orthogonal array concept. In the present study, three factors and three levels L9 orthogonal array is used. The identified parameter should be in three levels such as smallest, medium and highest levels.
Goutam Pohit et al. The intention of the investigation is to optimize seven response parameters for coated piston and head type IC engine. Out of seven responses, four responses related to engine performance and remaining three responses related to emission. Therefore, taguchi is not suitable for multi response optimization problem.
To overcome this problem, in this investigation taguchi with grey relational analysis is used to find the optimum solution.
The performance of an engine is an indication of the degree of success with which the conversion of chemical energy contained in the fuel is done into useful mechanical work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of following parameters:. However, in the evaluation of engine performance, the following performance parameters are chosen:. Skip to main content. Start your free trial.
Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper. Heat engines are energy conversion machines—they convert chemical energy in a fuel into work by combusting the fuel in air to produce heat. This heat is used to raise the temperature and pressure of a working fluid that is then used to perform useful work. Heat engines can be classified as:.
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