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Parts Of The Brain And Functions Pdf

parts of the brain and functions pdf

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We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. It plays a role in just about every major body system. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The two hemispheres are separated by a groove called the interhemispheric fissure.

Lobes of the brain

The Frontal Lobes are located in the front of the brain. They are very large and have many functions. The frontal lobes are considered to be our emotional control centre. They play a central role in our personality and how we act.

They are also involved in attention skills and controlling movement. The frontal lobes manage skills known as Executive Functions. These are very important skills we use for things such as solving problems, planning, making decisions and controlling our behaviour.

The frontal lobes work like the conductor of an orchestra who keeps all the musicians playing together harmoniously. Some Effects of an Injury to the Frontal Lobes. The frontal lobes are particularly vulnerable to injury because they are large and are at the front of the brain. An injury to the frontal lobes can lead to a number of changes including:.

The Temporal Lobes are located on the side of your brain just above your ears. One of their important functions is to help us process and understand sounds such as musical notes and speech. Other functions include managing our emotions and recognising faces. A part of the temporal lobe, called the Hippocampus , also plays an important role in memory. Some Effects of an Injury to the Temporal Lobes. The Parietal Lobes are located behind the frontal lobes and above the temporal lobes.

One of their main functions is to allow us to make sense of things we touch — for example, whether an object is smooth or sharp, firm or soft. The parietal lobes also tell us where our body is in relation to the objects around us.

This allows us to move around without bumping in to things. This function is known as Visuospatial Processing. The parietal lobes are also important for skills such as maths, spelling, hand-eye coordination and fine motor movements such as tying shoe laces. Some Effects of an Injury to the Parietal Lobes. The Occipital Lobes are located at the back of the brain. They have an important role in vision because they allow us to make sense of information that comes from our eyes.

This process is known as Visual Perception. Some Effects of an Injury to the Occipital Lobes. Part of the Brain Injury Series of booklets. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website.

These cookies do not store any personal information. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Need Support? Call our Helpline: Freephone Donate Shop. Effects of a Brain Injury on the Frontal Lobes Some Effects of an Injury to the Frontal Lobes The frontal lobes are particularly vulnerable to injury because they are large and are at the front of the brain.

An injury to the frontal lobes can lead to a number of changes including: Changes in personality. Difficulties with attention and taking in information. Emotional responses may be reduced.

Difficulties with motivation Apathy or getting things started Initiation. Changes in the ability to control behaviour Disinhibition. This means that the person may be more impulsive. They may say or do things without considering the consequences. Reduced self-awareness Anosagnosia. Poor judgment and decision-making. Difficulty planning things and meeting goals.

Irritability and less tolerance of frustration. Difficulty understanding or remembering what people say. Difficulty reading. Difficulty recognising objects. Short-term memory difficulties. Changes in sexual behaviour. Increased aggression. The Parietal Lobes The Parietal Lobes are located behind the frontal lobes and above the temporal lobes. Difficulty in distinguishing left from right.

Difficulties with hand-eye coordination. Difficulty making sense of what we see even if we do not have a visual impairment Visual Perceptual difficulty. Difficulty knowing the function of an object.

Problems with reading Alexia , writing Agraphia or maths Dyscalculia. Difficulty knowing where things are in relation to our own bodies; for example, how close an object is to us Spatial Awareness Difficulties. Reduced self-awareness Anosognosia. Visual Neglect. Effects of Brain Injury on the Occipital Lobes. Publication in pdf format. About the Brain Introduction to the Brain Brain structure and function Lobes of the brain and their functions Publications and Resources.

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The Human Brain: Anatomy and Function

It also integrates sensory impulses and information to form perceptions, thoughts, and memories. The brain gives us self-awareness and the ability to speak and move in the world. Its four major regions make this possible: The cerebrum , with its cerebral cortex, gives us conscious control of our actions. The diencephalon mediates sensations, manages emotions, and commands whole internal systems. The cerebellum adjusts body movements, speech coordination, and balance, while the brain stem relays signals from the spinal cord and directs basic internal functions and reflexes. The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain or prosencephalon. Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world.

parts of the brain and functions pdf

Brain Overview

The Central Nervous System

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system , and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum , the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body , processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs , and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body.

The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time.

Although we now know that most brain functions rely on many different regions across the entire brain working in conjunction, it is still true that each lobe carries out the bulk of certain functions. In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri bumps and sulci groves or fissures. The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull. This is why in frontotemporal dementia , personality changes are often the first signs of the disease. In , Gage was using a tamping iron to pack in gunpowder for blasting a tunnel through rock.


spatial functions. Page 4. Additionally, the cerebral cortex is divided into lobes •​.


The Frontal Lobes are located in the front of the brain. They are very large and have many functions. The frontal lobes are considered to be our emotional control centre. They play a central role in our personality and how we act. They are also involved in attention skills and controlling movement.

Due to advances in neural sciences, it has become a matter of reality that a person may consider at some point in life, for example as a treatment of a neurodegenerative disease. Currently, several approaches offer enhancements for sensory, motor and cognitive brain functions, as well as for mood and emotions. Such enhancements may be achieved pharmacologically, using brain implants for recordings, stimulation and drug delivery, by employing brain-machine interfaces, or even by ablation of certain brain areas.

The Central Nervous System

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