File Name: distribution and ecology of sand fly vectors of leishmania donovai in ethiopia .zip
Visceral leishmaniasis VL is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P.
Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease after malaria and lymphatic filariasis. It is common disease in all over the world. The vector for leishmaniasis is Phlebotomus and there have found around 20 different types of this vector. Environmental factors leading to climate changes and global warming are major risk factors for the spreading of the disease. Leishmania spp.
Visceral leishmaniasis VL has been known to occur since the s on the western bank of the White Nile River Central Sudan , km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17, sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia , were identified.
Visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis are important public health problems in Ethiopian lowland and highland areas respectively. Control of leishmaniasis requires proper understanding of human parasites transmissions anthroponotic or zoonotic or both. The aim of this review was to elaborate different ecologies of leishmaniasis based on evidences from previous researches and information from literatures obtained from different sources including PubMed to describe zoonotic leishmaniasis in Ethiopia with possible control methods. Although vectors of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are not endophelic, night indoor visits of Phlebotomus vectors for possible blood meal on human have been indicated. Thus, application of indoor and domestic residual insecticides spraying, use of insecticide impregnated fine mashed bed net for visceral leishmaniasis, community based manipulation destruction and residual insecticide fogging of hyrax-sand fly habitats for cutaneous leishmaniasis are the visible vector and reservoir control methods that can be used for control of these diseases in Ethiopia. Use of repellants during night outdoor activities of people in the endemic areas requires further investigations.
Current data show that the geographic distribution of the sandfly vector for L. donovani seems to extend from the lower Kola to the Weina Dega ecological zones.
Metrics details. Ethiopia is affected by human leishmaniasis caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by a variety of sand fly vectors of the genus Phlebotomus. The sand fly fauna in Ethiopia is highly diverse and some species are closely related and similar in morphology, resulting in difficulties with species identification that requires deployment of molecular techniques. DNA barcoding entails high costs, requires time and lacks reference sequences for many Ethiopian species.
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