File Name: root exudates and rhizosphere effects .zip
Shengjing Shi, Alan E. DeAngelis, Eirian E. Jones, Alison Stewart, Mary K. Firestone, Leo M. Low-molecular-weight organic compounds in root exudates play a key role in plant—microorganism interactions by influencing the structure and function of soil microbial communities.
Root exudates represent an important source of nutrients for microorganisms in the rhizosphere and seem to participate in early colonization inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. We characterized the root exudates collected from rice plantlets cultured under hydroponic conditions and assessed their effects on the chemotaxis of two strains of endophytic bacteria, Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus , collected from the rice rhizosphere. We compared these chemotactic effects on endophytic bacteria with those on two strains of plant-growth-promoting bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense isolated from the corn rhizosphere and Bacillus sp. The root exudates were collected at different time intervals. The highest concentration and diversity of amino acids and carbohydrates were found during the first 2 weeks after seeding. Histidine, proline, valine, alanine, and glycine were the main amino acid residues identified during the 4 weeks of culture.
Plant rhizosphere is the soil nearest to the plant root system where roots release large quantity of metabolites from living root hairs or fibrous root systems. These metabolites act as chemical signals for motile bacteria to move to the root surface but also represent the main nutrient sources available to support growth and persistence in the rhizosphere. Some of the microbes that inhabit this area are bacteria that are able to colonize very efficiently the roots or the rhizosphere soil of crop plants. These bacteria are referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria PGPR. They fulfil important functions for plant growth and health by various manners.
Subsoils are known to harbor large amounts of soil organic carbon SOC and may represent key global carbon C sinks given appropriate management. Although rhizodeposition is a major input pathway of organic matter to subsoils, little knowledge exists on C dynamics, particularly stabilization mechanisms, such as soil aggregation, in the rhizosphere of different soil depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of natural and elevated root exudation on C allocation and aggregation in the topsoil and subsoil of a mature European beech Fagus sylvatica L. We experimentally added model root exudates to soil at two different concentrations using artificial roots and analyzed how these affect SOC, nitrogen, microbial community composition, and size distribution of water-stable aggregates. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the spatial distribution of the formation of soil aggregates and their binding strength. Our results demonstrate that greater exudate additions affect the microbial community composition in favor of fungi which promote the formation of macroaggregates. Our modeling exercise reproduced the observed increase in subsoil SOC at high exudate additions.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Despite reports in the literature of superior contaminant degradation in the root-zone of plants, this phenomenon, known as the rhizosphere effect, is poorly understood.
Root exudation is an important process determining plant interactions with the soil environment. Many studies have linked this process to soil nutrient mobilization. Yet, it remains unresolved how exudation is controlled and how exactly and under what circumstances plants benefit from exudation. The majority of root exudates including primary metabolites sugars, amino acids, and organic acids are believed to be passively lost from the root and used by rhizosphere-dwelling microbes. In this review, we synthetize recent advances in ecology and plant biology to explain and propose mechanisms by which root exudation of primary metabolites is controlled, and what role their exudation plays in plant nutrient acquisition strategies. Specifically, we propose a novel conceptual framework for root exudates.
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