File Name: football speed and agility drills .zip
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different training programmes — change of direction COD vs. Thirty-two soccer players age: In conclusion, agility performance amongst young elite soccer could be improved using COD training. Nevertheless, including a conditioning programme for agility may allow a high level of athletic performance to be achieved.
Success in soccer requires high levels of technical, tactical, psychological and physical skills including aerobic and anaerobic power, muscle strength, flexibility and agility [ 1 ]. During a soccer game, players perform repeated bouts of low-level activity such as walking, jogging or cruising in conjunction with high-intensity actions such as sprinting, jumping and directional changes [ 2 ].
The ability to sprint, accelerate and decelerate alongside change of direction is commonly known as agility. Adhering to this definition, it is well recognized that agility is composed of perceptual and decision making factors, as well as change of direction COD components [ 4 ].
According to the scientific literature, agility is suggested as an important physical quality which should be well developed throughout childhood and adolescence [ 5 ]. Indeed, during this stage many body modifications emerge such as increase in sex androgen concentrations, increase of muscle cross-sectional area, nervous system development and neuro-plasticity adaptations [ 6 ].
Referring to the model proposed by Young et al. Therefore, in order to improve COD ability, many studies have proposed training programmes with planned activities closed skills based on the development of these determinant factors. In the last decades, the scientific literature has shown controversial findings in that regard. Likewise, the effects of strength training either with power, plyometric or maximal strength training remain debatable [ 10 — 12 ].
Consequently, in order to optimize performance, it has been recommended to use a mixed training programme that includes sprint, agility and quickness SAQ exercises [ 12 — 18 ]. Nevertheless, the results of these recommendations still led to contradictory results, since some studies reported significant improvements in COD performance [ 14 , 16 , 19 - 21 ], while others indicated no effect [ 12 , 17 , 18 , 22 ]. Currently, there is a lack of scientific investigations conducted concerning the effectiveness of agility AG training with generic or specific exercises [ 23 , 24 ].
Serpell et al. In this context, small-sided games SSGs have emerged, since they represent typical exercises for soccer players as they mimic the specific actions of soccer games. Likewise, Chaouachi et al. However, optimally improving AG through the stimulation of physical and cognitive skills remains unclear.
Furthermore, to our knowledge, no research comparing change of direction COD and agility AG testing and training with ball and without ball exists amongst the same assessed population. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of two different training programmes — AG vs COD — on the performance of speed, COD, and agility tests among elite youth soccer players.
The results of this study will allow strength and conditioning coaches to develop an appropriate training programme for improving COD and AG skills. Participants completed a battery of tests before and after 6 weeks of training. The soccer players were randomly separated into 2 experimental groups: 1 the change of direction group COD-G , and 2 the agility group A-G. A control group CON-G recruited from the same team was also tested and was instructed to continue with daily activities but not to undertake any additional training other than the team soccer training.
Players were asked to wear adapted soccer boots adapted to the turf and allowing players to have good adherence to the pitch in a consistent way through the experiment. Thirty-two young male elite soccer players were randomly separated into 3 groups two experimental groups and one control group. All participants age: All players trained five times a week i. Testing sessions were administered during the competition phase fifth month of the season. Ten players were defined as the control group, while goalkeepers were not included in the investigation.
Familiarization procedures for testing were performed one week before the beginning of the protocol by all recruited players. Field tests were carried out on a third-generation synthetic soccer turf. Pre- and post-tests were performed on the same weekday between 5 pm and 7 pm, and at least 24 hours after the last training session and 2 hours after the last intake of food.
All tests were performed on the pitch and under similar environmental conditions i. COD performance was assessed using the test [ 25 ] and m AR with and without the ball according to Mujika et al. The 15m SS test was performed according to Mujika et al. Players performed two trials of each test 2-min rest between trials and the best performance was used for analysis ICC: 0. Each participant was asked to sprint a 15 m distance, with photocell gates placed 0. Sprint tests were performed with the players starting in a standing position, with their preferred foot forward and placed exactly 3 m behind the first timing gate.
As in the m sprint test, players started running 3 m behind the initial set of gates. After 3 m of straight running, players entered a 3-m slalom section marked by three aligned sticks at the height of 1.
Players finally ran 7 m to break the second set of photocell gates, which stopped the timer. This test was similar to the m agility run test, but players were required to dribble a ball while performing the test. After the slalom section of the test, the ball was kicked under the hurdle while the player cleared it. The player then kicked the ball towards either of two small goals placed diagonally 7 m on the left and the right sides of the hurdle, and finished with 7 m of straight sprint.
This test evaluated the capacity of the participants to quickly change direction. Markers were set up at 5 and 15 m from a line marked on the ground. The players assumed a starting position 10 m from the timing gates i. The participants ran from the m marker toward the line running at distance to build up speed and through the 5 m markers, turned on the line, and ran back through the 5-m markers.
The time was recorded from when the participants first ran through the 5-m marker and stopped when they returned through these markers i. The participants were instructed not to overstep the line by too much, as this would increase their test duration. During RATs the participant had four options:. All these conditions were provided to each player in 2 series minute rest between sets in a random order. Players were instructed to recognize the cues as soon as possible essentially while moving forward.
To increase consistency the mean of all trials i. The COD-G and the AG-G were required to participate in two additional training sessions per week during a 6-week period in addition to the usual training. Recovery time of around 50 seconds was allowed between trials and minutes between sets.
COD and AG training programmes were designed to be equivalent with respect to the distances run, the total training volume, the number of agility modalities per player and per session, and the intensity of the efforts.
Before using parametric tests, the assumption of normality was verified using the Shapiro—Wilk W-test. The data were then analysed using multivariate analysis of variance 3x2 with repeated measures. Because of the slight differences in the initial groups, analysis of covariance with the pre-test values as the covariate was used to determine significant differences between the post-test adjusted means in the groups.
If significant main effects were present, Bonferroni post-hoc analysis was performed. The values of 0. No significant pre-to-post training variations in anthropometric variables were found in the studied groups. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of AG training compared with COD training on the performance of linear sprinting, COD, and AG tests in young elite soccer players. The originality of this study was the inclusion of generic AG training exercises with and without a ball, which mimics COD actions performed during soccer games.
Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first study comparing COD and AG testing and training amongst the same population of young elite soccer players. The major findings of the current investigation highlight that AG or COD training programmes induce an improvement of sprinting performance in young elite soccer players. The improvement in sprinting performance after AG and COD training could be partly explained by the improvement in leg extensor power and the ability to produce lower limb force more efficiently after training, as previously reported [ 31 , 32 ].
Nevertheless, the lack of strength measurements could be considered as a limitation of the present study. In fact, according to Lockie et al. It is well known that agility is influenced by several factors such as linear sprinting and strength [ 3 ].
The COD training performed in the present study included specific exercises that improve these factors. In that regard, significant improvement in COD performance following 16 weeks of specific COD exercises was reported [ 13 ]. Furthermore, Milanovic et al. However, the performance improvement observed after COD training may also be related to an increase of lower limb strength.
Indeed, it has been reported that COD training increased strength and power of leg extensors, which improved re-acceleration ability during the re-acceleration phase of the change of direction.
Moreover, it can be speculated that COD training also allows athletes to improve the COD technique and therefore improve the efficiency of their cuts. Therefore, agility training could be recommended for improving agility performance and enhancing related soccer performance.
The results of the present investigation were expected and were in accordance with previous studies [ 23 , 24 ].
In that context, Chaouachi et al. Additionally, it has been reported that 3 weeks of specific AG training reacting to a video by changing direction allowed significant improvement in total AG time and also perception and response time [ 24 ]. However, the implications of cognitive factors decision making are crucial to interpret improvements in AG tests. Indeed, it has been previously reported that decision time is highly correlated with agility despite the fact that the decision time represents only 3.
Accordingly, decision-making ability should be considered as a determinant factor of agility performance. Indeed, as previously demonstrated, compared to sub-elite players, elite players are able to use appropriate postural cues i. We believe that the study design used exercises with high ecological validity.
This is considered as closer to the reality of soccer than a whistle sound signal for instance. Further studies should experiment with the effects of using field-based training compared to video-based training. The authors of the latter investigation concluded that cognitive skills could be enhanced via specific agility training. Consequently, the better performance on agility tests with and without a ball following RAT of the present study may be due to an improvement in decision time cognitive factors.
Consequently, future studies assessing these parameters are warranted. One of the limitations of the present investigation was that it did not take into consideration the effect of laterality of players. In that regard, it has been reported that young elite soccer players had a better COD performance with the dominant leg vs. For this reason, future studies should take into consideration the effect of laterality when comparing different training groups. It has to be noted that COD ability is not relevant to soccer performance, even though some coaches use COD training and testing.
Use these 5 drills to develop your footwork, increase your strength, and maximize your performance. The X Drill is excellent for developing change of direction, quick feet, and running at different angles. This is a helpful drill for practicing quick transitions and developing faster reaction times. The 3 cone L drill is another popular agility test used in the NFL combine to assess agility, balance, and change of direction. A great drill to develop acceleration, change of direction, and forward to backward movements. This drill can also be performed side to side with diagonal sprints and lateral shuffles using the same cone positioning. This can be useful to build agility cutting in different directions quickly as well as a skill builder by dribbling a soccer or basketball to build handling and footwork skills.
Agility training exercises help improve speed, explosive power, coordination, and specific sports skills. From high school to professional sports teams, all athletes can benefit from agility training exercises. Incorporate these drills a few times a week into your training routine to perfect your foot speed and refine your sports technique. Lateral plyometric jumps help build explosive power, balance, and coordination by using our natural body weight. This advanced agility training exercise is essential for any athletic position that requires lateral coordination and power. For best results, be sure to perform this drill after a thorough warm up.
Agility and quickness training is no different. Therefore, prior to the Most team sports, such as basketball, American football, and soccer, are characterized by.
Fitness Instructors who got sick of spending hours searching online for new Agility Ladder Drills. In this guide you will discover more Agility Ladder Drills than you will ever need. Do you feel like your agility ladders sessions need to be spiced up a bit? Are you and your athletes bored of doing the same agility.
Speed and agility training drills are designed to work all your leg and core muscles, as well as the tendons in your body. It is important to train at a level that is equal to your game intensity to help increase your performance and to minimize injury. Cone drills build leg strength and explosion on their one, but it is your intensity and rep scheme that will change the workload.
STACK Expert John Cissik offers a week program to maximize your speed, training all three components of speed—acceleration, top-end speed and speed endurance. If you believe doing a few sprints is the key to getting faster, you are sorely mistaken. Maximizing your speed requires you to train the three components of speed: acceleration, top-end speed and speed endurance.
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