File Name: single and double loop learning .zip
Double-loop learning is an educational concept and process that involves teaching people to think more deeply about their own assumptions and beliefs. Double-loop learning is different than single-loop learning which involves changing methods and improving efficiency to obtain established objectives i. Double-loop learning concerns changing the objectives themselves i.
Single-loop and double-loop learning are readily understood using the analogy of a household thermostat. Single-loop learning is about achieving a given temperature—like a thermostat set to 68 degrees that turns up the heat whenever the temperature drops below 68 the objective.
Double-loop learning involves changing the setting on the thermostat i. Double-loop learning calls for changing the objective itself. Indeed, double-loop learning is not only about changing the objective, but involves questioning the assumptions about that objective, the ways of discovering and inventing new alternatives, objectives, and perceptions, as well as ways of approaching problems. When a manager must make a decision, he or she thinks of behavior alternatives within their mental model.
They may be open to learning new methods or techniques that support their present management practices i. Leading is about transformation. The intent of double-loop learning is also transformation; the transformation of deeply held perspectives of the world in which we work and act.
Double-loop learning can be viewed as a distinctive educational strategy that contains high- level potential to shift the perceptions of our learners. The strategy or method used to achieve this type of deeper learning is a form of communication, of dialogue that involves a good deal of interaction among learners.
Double-Loop Learning helps people acquire and integrate new information and develop new skills, to question and possibly discard familiar and perhaps dysfunctional ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. Drilling down into the subject of leaders and leadership will take learners past the obvious to some of the non-obvious notions we all have held that no longer function well in our evolving world of work.
Dialogue about our deeply-held, taken-for-granted ideas about organizations, for example, focuses on what we know to be obvious then moves to the less obvious. Communication between people within organizations involves sophisticated tools.
The obvious include emails and telephones and departmental meetings. Less obvious perhaps, are the tools that are usually mistaken for communication itself, even for the organization itself. For example, management systems of information and authority, budgets, evaluation and appraisal systems, databases and so on.
Even less obvious, tools of communication include statements of visions, missions, values, and policies Klatt, The usefulness of the strategy of double-loop learning for leadership education and development comes from its potential to extract tacit knowledge from individuals and convert it to explicit knowledge. Chris Argyris and Donald Schon recommend a form of inquiry-based dialogue, dialogue that questions the validity of underlying assumptions and beliefs about leadership.
The leadership educator, through the development of critical questions, guides learners through an inquiry process which gets underneath the starting perceptions about leading and managing.
Learners must then ask why they hold the positions they do and what they mean by them. They may ask what factors have led them to adopt particular standards for leaders, what contradictions they find in those standards, and what rationales they use when adapting to those contradictions.
Learners are asked to reflect on and inquire into previous contexts for learning about leadership, they reflect on and inquire into previous episodes of learning to lead, or failure to learn. They discover what they did that facilitated or inhibited learning to lead, they invent new strategies for learning.
They then discuss these strategies in light of previously learned values or norms, and reflect on and inquire into the validity of these norms. In the case of double-loop learning however, norms are seen in transition.
They cannot be taken as given and used as criteria for learning new leadership strategies. On the contrary, its goodness is inherent in the ways in which error is continually interpreted and corrected, incompatibility and incongruity are continually engaged, and conflict is continually confronted and resolved.
A key aspect of leadership education is that everyone has his or her own definition of leadership, most often at the tacit level. We all know what a leader is, but we find definitions and explicit knowledge hard to come by. In the educational context all participants, unlike in chemistry or math, come with assumptions and beliefs that become part of the learning setting. These assumptions and beliefs can be extremely strong and make double-loop learning very difficult, if not threatening, to the student.
Thus, while educational programs can involve a degree of double-loop learning, they most often entail single-loop learning, that is, learning how to do something that one already knows they need to do, but learning how to do this better and more efficiently. Double-loop learning, therefore, is hard work.
It means we must change habits of thinking, challenge and restructure deeply held assumptions, and act in new and unfamiliar ways. The results of successful double-loop learning and the process of dialogue that accompanies it can, however, be well worth the challenge. This kind of inquiry can lead to experimentation with new designs and new actions, which in turn can lead to further new designs and actions when learning to lead. Double-loop learning allows the educator to create opportunities, opportunities for people to understand the need to rethink why they lead and how they lead.
Argyris, C. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Mintzberg, H. Stacey, R. New York: Routledge. Skip to content. An Educational Process of Double-Loop Learning Chris Argyris and Donald Schon recommend a form of inquiry-based dialogue, dialogue that questions the validity of underlying assumptions and beliefs about leadership. Conclusion The results of successful double-loop learning and the process of dialogue that accompanies it can, however, be well worth the challenge.
References Argyris, C. Klatt, D. The Ultimate Training Workshop Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. The economic downturn currently spreading around the world comes with chaos and high uncertainty and has caused organizations, public and private alike, to reconsider their overall strategies in order to survive and stimulate recovery. This paper explores the concept of single-loop and double-loop learning processes, as innovation, and its relationship and influence on change management and organizational learning. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.
An espoused theory of action based on single-loop learning is found to be the most general model of action. A double-loop model is proposed.
Double-loop learning is an educational concept and process that involves teaching people to think more deeply about their own assumptions and beliefs. Double-loop learning is different than single-loop learning which involves changing methods and improving efficiency to obtain established objectives i. Double-loop learning concerns changing the objectives themselves i. Single-loop and double-loop learning are readily understood using the analogy of a household thermostat. Single-loop learning is about achieving a given temperature—like a thermostat set to 68 degrees that turns up the heat whenever the temperature drops below 68 the objective.
The purpose of this research is to emphasise the need for behavioural and transformational problem solving techniques, using a ST approach to improve performance. This research used a modified instrument encompassing single-loop learning SLL and double-loops learning DLL , tied directly to the pedagogy of problem-based learning. The statistical results were positively related and contributed to the performance. The results were compared with the literature.
The inability to uncover errors and other unpleasant truths arises from faulty organizational […]. The inability to uncover errors and other unpleasant truths arises from faulty organizational learning, says this author. Such habits and attitudes, which allow a company to hide its problems, lead to rigidity and deterioration.
Organizational learning is a process of detecting and correcting errors. Single loop learning is a process in which organizations are able to correct matters in order to achieve stated objectives. In double loop learning, problems are examined and corrected even though correction requires challenge to underlying policies and objectives. When policy or objectives are not questioned, organizational behavior may camouflage errors. Organizational games and norms prevent people from speaking out. Sep 1,
On this blog I am going to share some information about Single and Double-loop Learning. Sooner or later, you should be able to find answers to these questions from this blog:. And i n addition to these, hopefully some good case-examples, pictures, videos and etc.
Single loop learning can be compared with a thermostat that learns when it is too hot or too cold and then turns the heat on or off. The thermostat is able to perform.
Chris Argyris has made a significant contribution to the development of our appreciation of organizational learning, and, almost in passing, deepened our understanding of experiential learning. Army eventually becoming a Second Lieutenant Elkjaer He graduated with a degree in Psychology Whyte in As well as making a significant contribution to the literature Chris Argyris was known as a dedicated and committed teacher. Argyris was also a director of the Monitor Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This research resulted in the books Personality and Organization and Integrating the Individual and the Organization
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Learning a profession is much more for a student than the mere memorization of facts. Learning to be professional within a particular profession can only take place within that profession. View Paper. Save to Library. Create Alert.
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