File Name: classification of red and white lesions of oral cavity .zip
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The lesion appears white due to changes in the epithelium which can be caused by an increase in the keratinization of normal keratinized mucosa, keratinization of non keratinized mucosa or thickening of the epithelium. The reduced vascularity or fibrosis of mucosa can also lead to the whiteness of the oral mucosa. The red appearance of the lesion appears because of the inflammation,atrophy, vascular dilation, and purpura or reduced in the keratinization of the oral epithelium. Generally the red and white lesions are benign and a large proportion of the normal population has been affected by it. The most common precancerous condition which comes under these lesions classification is Leukoplakia. A proper management of this condition is required to avoid its future complication. All conditions should be properly examined by taking a proper and careful history.
An injury to the oral mucosa can result from physical, chemical, or thermal trauma. Such injuries can result from accidental tooth bite, hard food, sharp edges of the teeth, hot food, or excessive tooth brushing. Some injuries can also be caused by iatrogenic damage during dental treatment or other procedures related to oral cavity. In this chapter, oral mucosal trauma and injuries will be examined in four subclasses: physical and mechanical traumas of oral mucosa; chemical injuries of the oral mucosa; radiation injuries; and electrical, thermal burns. Trauma in Dentistry. Trauma-related oral lesions are common in clinical practice of dentistry.
Diagnosis of oral white lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral white lesions according to their clinical features. Related English-language articles published since to , including reviews, meta-analyses, and original papers randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials; prospective or retrospective cohort studies , case reports, and case series about oral diseases were appraised. Upon compilation of data, oral white lesions were categorized into two major groups according to their nature of development: Congenital or acquired lesions and four subgroups: Lesions which can be scraped off or not and lesions with the special pattern or not. In total, more than 20 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method. These lesions represent a wide spectrum of lesions with different etiology and various prognoses.
Leukoedema is a generalized white change of oral mucosa which is probably a variation of normal rather than a disease. The cause is unknown. It occurs much more commonly in blacks than whites. Leukoedema is diffuse and symmetrically distributed on the buccal mucosa and may extend onto the labial mucosa. The appearance is gray-white, opaque, or milky. It can be smooth to palpation or wrinkled, and it does not rub off.
Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification. Facultad de Medicina.
Contemporary Oral Medicine pp Cite as. Whiteness of the oral mucosa can be caused by changes in the epithelium such as keratinization of normally nonkeratinized mucosa such as the buccal mucosa , increased keratinization of normally keratinized mucosa, abnormal keratinization of the epithelium, thickening of the epithelium, and epithelial edema. Some of the more common causes of redness erythema of the oral mucosa include reduced keratinization of the oral epithelium, epithelial atrophy, erosion or inflammation, and vascular dilatation or proliferation. Generally, the prevalence of red and white oral lesions increases with age. A large proportion of red and white lesions are benign. However, the most common premalignant condition in the oral cavity is a white plaque leukoplakia , and this must be managed expeditiously and appropriately.
Leukoplakia is a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated with increased risk of cancer. The cause of leukoplakia is unknown. Leukoplakia is a descriptive term that should only be applied after other possible causes are ruled out. Treatment recommendations depend on features of the lesion. Leukoplakia could be classified as mucosal disease, and also as a premalignant condition. Although the white color in leukoplakia is a result of hyperkeratosis or acanthosis , similarly appearing white lesions that are caused by reactive keratosis smoker's keratosis or frictional keratoses e. Dyskeratosis congenita may be associated with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa and of the anal mucosa.
Classify white lesions of the oral cavity. Describe the aetiology, clinical features and management of leukoplakia. Name some of the white lesions of oral mucosa. Describe the clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of leukoplakia of hard palate. What are the keratinizing lesions of the oral cavity? Write about oral leukoplakia. Define leukoplakia.
Нет, сэр. Какой номер вы набираете? - Сеньор Ролдан не потерпит сегодня больше никаких трюков. - 34-62-10, - ответили на другом конце провода. Ролдан нахмурился.
Холодные серые глаза смотрели безжизненно. Живший в ее сознании герой умер, превратился в убийцу. Его руки внезапно снова потянулись к ней в отчаянном порыве. Он целовал ее щеки. - Прости меня, - умолял .
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