File Name: longbow a social and military history by robert hardy .zip
Soar's book is indispensable. For centuries the longbow dominated battle, affecting the fates of nations"— Wall Street Journal "Bowyers, bowhunters, target archers and students of archery history should all find cause for celebration with Hugh Soar's concise but authoritative text. The attackers rode to the field on horseback, banners and pennants fluttering in the light breeze.
However they were less successful after this, with longbowmen having their lines broken at the Battle of Verneuil though the English won a decisive victory, and being completely routed at the Battle of Patay when they were charged by the French mounted men-at-arms before they had prepared the terrain and finished defensive arrangements. The Battle of Pontvallain had also previously shown longbowmen were not particularly effective when not given the time to set up defensive positions. No English longbows survive from the period when the longbow was dominant c.
A longbow must be long enough to allow its user to draw the string to a point on the face or body, and the length therefore varies with the user. In continental Europe it was generally seen as any bow longer than 1. The Society of Antiquaries of London says it is of 5 or 6 feet 1. Estimates for the draw of these bows varies considerably. Before the recovery of the Mary Rose , Count M. Mildmay Stayner, Recorder of the British Long Bow Society, estimated the bows of the Medieval period drew 90— pounds-force — newtons , maximum, and W.
A record of how boys and men trained to use the bows with high draw weights survives from the reign of Henry VII. I had my bows bought me according to my age and strength, as I increased in them, so my bows were made bigger and bigger.
For men shall never shoot well unless they be brought up to it. What Latimer meant when he describes laying his body into the bow was described thus:. Hence probably arose the phrase "bending the bow," and the French of "drawing" one. The preferred material to make the longbow was yew , although ash , elm and other woods were also used.
Gerald of Wales speaking of the bows used by the Welsh men of Gwent, says: "They are made neither of horn, ash nor yew, but of elm; ugly unfinished-looking weapons, but astonishingly stiff, large and strong, and equally capable of use for long or short shooting". This can be done far more quickly by working the wood down when wet, as a thinner piece of wood will dry much faster. The outer "back" of sapwood , approximately flat, follows the natural growth rings; modern bowyers often thin the sapwood, while in the Mary Rose bows the back of the bow was the natural surface of the wood, only the bark is removed.
The inner side "belly" of the bow stave consists of rounded heartwood. The heartwood resists compression and the outer sapwood performs better in tension. This combination in a single piece of wood a self bow forms a natural "laminate", somewhat similar in effect to the construction of a composite bow. Longbows will last a long time if protected with a water-resistant coating, traditionally of "wax, resin and fine tallow ".
The trade of yew wood to England for longbows was such that it depleted the stocks of yew over a huge area. The first documented import of yew bowstaves to England was in Supplies still proved insufficient, until by the Statute of Westminster , every ship coming to an English port had to bring four bowstaves for every tun.
This stimulated a vast network of extraction and supply, which formed part of royal monopolies in southern Germany and Austria. In , the price of bowstaves rose from two to eight pounds per hundred, and in the Venetians obtained sixteen pounds per hundred. In the Holy Roman Emperor asked the Duke of Bavaria to stop cutting yew, but the trade was profitable, and in the royal monopoly was granted for the usual quantity "if there are that many".
In , the Bavarian government sent a long plea to the Holy Roman Emperor asking him to stop the cutting of yew and outlining the damage done to the forests by its selective extraction, which broke the canopy and allowed wind to destroy neighbouring trees.
In , despite a request from Saxony, no royal monopoly was granted because there was no yew to cut, and the next year Bavaria and Austria similarly failed to produce enough yew to justify a royal monopoly. Forestry records in this area in the 17th century do not mention yew, and it seems that no mature trees were to be had.
The English tried to obtain supplies from the Baltic, but at this period bows were being replaced by guns in any case. Bowstrings are made of hemp , flax or silk , and attached to the wood via horn "nocks" that fit onto the end of the bow. Modern synthetic materials often Dacron are now commonly also used for strings. A wide variety of arrows were shot from the English longbow. Variations in length, fletchings and heads are all recorded.
Perhaps the greatest diversity lies in hunting arrows, with varieties like broad-arrow, wolf-arrow, dog-arrow, Welsh arrow and Scottish arrow being recorded. Only one significant group of arrows, found at the wreck of the Mary Rose , has survived.
Over arrows were found, mainly made of poplar but also of ash, beech and hazel. However, many heads have survived in other places, which has allowed typologies of arrowheads to be produced, the most modern being the Jessop typology.
Longbows were very difficult to master because the force required to deliver an arrow through the improving armour of medieval Europe was very high by modern standards. Considerable practice was required to produce the swift and effective combat shooting required. Skeletons of longbow archers are recognisably affected, with enlarged left arms and often osteophytes on left wrists, left shoulders and right fingers.
It was the difficulty in using the longbow that led various monarchs of England to issue instructions encouraging their ownership and practice, including the Assize of Arms of and Edward III of England 's declaration of Whereas the people of our realm, rich and poor alike, were accustomed formerly in their games to practise archery — whence by God's help, it is well known that high honour and profit came to our realm, and no small advantage to ourselves in our warlike enterprises If the people practised archery, it would be that much easier for the king to recruit the proficient longbowmen he needed for his wars.
Along with the improving ability of gunfire to penetrate plate armour, it was the long training needed by longbowmen that eventually led to their being replaced by musketeers. The range of the medieval weapon is not accurately known, with much depending on both the power of the bow and the type of arrow.
Writing 30 years after the Mary Rose sank, Barnabe Rich estimated that if 1, English archers were mustered then after one week only of them would be able to shoot farther than paces, while would not be able to shoot farther than paces. In an early modern test by Saxton Pope , a direct hit from a steel bodkin point penetrated Damascus mail armour. Against "high quality riveted maille ", the needle bodkin and curved broadhead penetrated 2. Against a coat of plates , the needle bodkin achieved 0.
The curved broadhead did not penetrate but caused 0. Results against plate armour of "minimum thickness" 1. In Bane's view, the plate armour would have kept out all the arrows if thicker or worn with more padding. Other modern tests described by Bane include those by Williams which concluded that longbows could not penetrate mail, but in Bane's view did not use a realistic arrow tip , Robert Hardy 's tests which achieved broadly similar results to Bane , and a Primitive Archer test which demonstrated that a longbow could penetrate a plate armour breastplate.
Tests conducted by Mark Stretton  examined the effects of heavier war shafts as opposed to lighter hunting or distance-shooting 'flight arrows'. The quarrel-like gram arrow from a yew 'self bow' with a draw weight of lbs at 32 inches while travelling at The target was covered in a riveted mail over a fabric armour of deerskin over 24 linen layers. While most arrows went through the mail layer, none fully penetrated the textile armour. Other research has also concluded that later medieval armour, such as that of the Italian city-state mercenary companies, was effective at stopping contemporary arrows.
However, the depth of penetration would be slight at that range, a mere 14mm on average; penetration increased as the range closed or against armour lesser than the best quality available at the time, but with 24mm being the highest penetration depth estimated at 25 m range, it was unlikely to be deadly. In August , Blacksmith and Youtuber Tod from Tod's Workshop together with historian Dr Tobias Capwell curator at the Wallace collection , Joe Gibbs Archer , Will Sherman Fletcher and Kevin Legg armourer ran a practical test using as close a recreation of 15th century plate armour made with materials and techniques fitting to the time period over a chainmail and gambeson against a lbs longbow.
They fired a variety of arrows at the target and the results showed that the arrows shot by a lbs longbow were unable to penetrate the front of the armour at any range, but the arrow that struck below the harnesk went right through the underlaying protection. Gerald of Wales commented on the power of the Welsh longbow in the 12th century:. It went right through his thigh, high up, where it was protected inside and outside the leg by his iron chausses , and then through the skirt of his leather tunic; next it penetrated that part of the saddle which is called the alva or seat; and finally it lodged in his horse, driving so deep that it killed the animal.
Against massed men in armour, massed longbows were murderously effective on many battlefields. Strickland and Hardy suggest that "even at a range of yards, heavy war arrows shot from bows of poundages in the mid- to upper range possessed by the Mary Rose bows would have been capable of killing or severely wounding men equipped with armour of wrought iron. Higher-quality armour of steel would have given considerably greater protection, which accords well with the experience of Oxford's men against the elite French vanguard at Poitiers in , and des Ursin's statement that the French knights of the first ranks at Agincourt, which included some of the most important and thus best-equipped nobles, remained comparatively unhurt by the English arrows".
Archery was described by contemporaries as ineffective against steel plate armour in the Battle of Neville's Cross , the siege of Bergerac , and the Battle of Poitiers ; such armour became available to European knights and men at arms of fairly modest means by the middle of the 14th century, though never to all soldiers in any army. Longbowmen were, however, effective at Poitiers, and this success stimulated changes in armour manufacture partly intended to make armoured men less vulnerable to archery.
Nevertheless, at the battle of Agincourt in and for some decades thereafter, English longbowmen continued to be an effective battlefield force.
For example, at the Battle of Poitiers , the French men-at-arms formed a shield wall with which Geoffrey le Baker recounts "protecting their bodies with joined shields, [and] turned their faces away from the missiles. So the archers emptied their quivers in vain". Modern tests and contemporary accounts agree therefore that well-made plate armour could protect against longbows. However, this did not necessarily make the longbow ineffective; thousands of longbowmen were deployed in the English victory at Agincourt against plate armoured French knights in Clifford Rogers has argued that while longbows might not have been able to penetrate steel breastplates at Agincourt they could still penetrate the thinner armour on the limbs.
Most of the French knights advanced on foot but, exhausted by walking across wet muddy terrain in heavy armour enduring a "terrifying hail of arrow shot", they were overwhelmed in the melee. Less heavily armoured soldiers were more vulnerable than knights.
Horses were generally less well protected than the knights themselves; shooting the French knights' horses from the side where they were less well armoured is described by contemporary accounts of the Battle of Poitiers , and at Agincourt John Keegan has argued that the main effect of the longbow would have been in injuring the horses of the mounted French knights. A typical military longbow archer would be provided with between 60 and 72 arrows at the time of battle.
Most archers would not shoot arrows at the maximum rate, as it would exhaust even the most experienced man. Ranged volleys at the beginning of the battle would differ markedly from the closer, aimed shots as the battle progressed and the enemy neared. On the battlefield English archers stored their arrows stabbed upright into the ground at their feet, reducing the time it took to nock, draw and loose.
Arrows were not unlimited, so archers and their commanders took every effort to ration their use to the situation at hand. Nonetheless, resupply during battle was available.
Young boys were often employed to run additional arrows to longbow archers while in their positions on the battlefield. In tests against a moving target simulating a galloping knight  it took some approximately seven seconds to draw, aim and loose an armour-piercing heavy arrow using a replica war bow.
It was found that in the seven seconds between the first and second shots the target advanced 70 yards and that the second shot occurred at such close range that, if it was a realistic contest, running away was the only option. A Tudor English author expects eight shots from a longbow in the same time as five from a musket. The advantage of early firearms lay in the lower training requirements, the opportunity to take cover while shooting, flatter trajectory,  and greater penetration.
Specialised medical tools designed for arrow wounds have existed since ancient times: Diocles successor of Hippocrates devised the graphiscos, a form of cannula with hooks, and the duck-billed forceps allegedly invented by Heras of Cappadocia  was employed during the medieval period to extract arrows. While armor-piercing "bodkin" points were relatively easy if painful to remove, barbed points required the flesh to be cut or pulled aside.
An arrow would be pushed through and taken out the other side of the body only in the worst cases, as this would cause even more tissue damage and risk cutting through major blood vessels. The royal physician John Bradmore had a tool made that consisted of a pair of smooth tongs.
Once carefully inserted into the socket of the arrowhead, the tongs screwed apart until they gripped its walls and allowed the head to be extracted from the wound. Prior to the extraction, the hole made by the arrow shaft was widened by inserting larger and larger dowels of elder pith wrapped in linen down into the entry wound. The dowels were soaked in honey , now known to have antiseptic properties.
After 20 days, the wound was free of infection.
He was He began his career after the war in Shakespearean roles onstage in Stratford-upon-Avon. Hardy is survived by his children Paul, Justine and Emma. The civil engineering student has been swimming since he was 8-years-old, joining the Suez Canal Club a year later, and is now a professional sprinter swimmer coached by Farouk Al-Akhras. Training to beat the record has changed the way Shaaban eats, sleeps and trains as well, with three training sessions a day, two of them in water, with a gym session in between. As a junior, Shaaban was ranked as the second fastest swimmer in the world, and he currently holds three world medals two silvers and a bronze , and he achieved the new world record during a 3-month training programme for another upcoming championship. He can cross 50 meters underwater on one held breath in only
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The longbow or English longbow , or Welsh longbow , see below was a type of bow about 2. It reached its zenith of perfection as a weapon in the hands of English and Welsh archers. There are various descriptions of the medieval longbow.
Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы. - Туда и обратно, - пробормотал. Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал. Теперь предстояло принять решение. Бросить все и ехать в аэропорт.
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