File Name: general issues on environmental ecology biodiversity and climate change .zip
Journal of Ecology and Environment is an open access and online journal dedicated to sharing outcomes of basic ecological research, and implications or applications based on ecological research.
Every one of us is sustained by various kinds of natural resources — such as food, materials, and energy that are harvested or otherwise extracted from the environment.
Our need for those resources is absolute — we cannot survive without them. Moreover, the same is true of all other species — every organism is a component of an ecosystem that provides the means of subsistence. Collectively, the needs and activities of people comprise a human economy. That economy operates at various scales, ranging from an individual person, to a family, to communities such as towns and cities, nation-states such as Canada , and ultimately the global human enterprise.
While an enormous and rapidly growing number of people are supported by the global economy, a lot of environmental damage is also being caused. The most important of the damages are the depletion of vital natural resources, various kinds of pollution including climate change , and widespread destruction of natural habitats to the extent that the survival of many of the natural ecosystems and species of Earth are at grave risk.
These issues are of vital importance to all people, and to all life on the planet. Their subject matter provides the context for a wide-ranging field of knowledge called environmental studies, an extremely broad field of knowledge that examines the scientific, social, and cultural aspects of environmental issues. As such, the subject matter of environmental studies engages all forms of understanding that are relevant to identifying, understanding, and resolving environmental problems.
Within that context, environmental science examines the science-related implications of environmental issues this is explained in more detail in the following section.
The subject matter of environmental science is the focus of this book. Issues related to environmental problems are extremely diverse and they interact in myriad ways. Despite this complexity, environmental issues can be studied by aggregating them into three broad categories:. These are extremely big issues — their sustainable resolution poses great challenges to people and their economy at all scales. Nevertheless, it is important to understand that the study of environmental issues should not be regarded as being a gloomy task of understanding awful problems — rather, the major goal is to identify problems and find practical ways to repair them and prevent others from occurring.
These are worthwhile and necessary actions that represent real progress towards an ecologically sustainable economy. As such, people who understand and work towards the resolution of environmental problems can achieve high levels of satisfaction with their contribution, which is something that helps to make life worth living. Typical questions that might be examined in environmental science include the following:.
Image 1. Planet Earth. Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun, and it is the only place in the universe that is definitely known to sustain life and ecosystems. Other than sunlight, the natural resources needed to sustain the human economy are restricted to the limited amounts that can be extracted on Earth. This image of the Western Hemisphere was taken from a distance of thousand km from the surface of Earth.
Source: R. El Saleous, and M. Specialists examining these and other questions related to environmental issues may come from many specific areas of study, each of which is referred to as a discipline. However, the various ways of understanding each issue may be integrated into comprehensive studies of the subject matter — this is why environmental studies is referred to as interdisciplinary field.
For environmental science, the most relevant of the disciplinary subjects are atmospheric science, biology, chemistry, computer science, ecology, geography, geology, mathematics, medical science, oceanography, physics, and statistics. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1. Environmental science has an interdisciplinary character.
All scientific disciplines are relevant to the identification and resolution of environmental issues. However, the work requires an interdisciplinary approach that engages many disciplines in a coordinated manner. This integration is suggested by the overlaps among the disciplinary fields. This book deals with the key subject areas of environmental science. To some degree, however, certain non-science topics are also examined because they are vital to understanding and resolving environmental issues.
These non-science fields include ethics, philosophy, and economics. Of all of the academic disciplines, ecology is the most relevant to environmental science, and in fact the terms are often confused. Ecology may be defined simply as the study of the relationships of organisms with their environment. Ecology is itself a highly interdisciplinary field of study — it mostly involves biology, but knowledge of chemistry, computer science, mathematics, physics, geology, and other fields is also important.
Geography is another interdisciplinary field that is central to environmental science. Obviously, ecology and geography are closely related fields. Increasing numbers of scientists are studying human or anthropogenic influences on ecosystems, occurring as a result of pollution, disturbances, and other stressors. Examples of the major subject areas are:. An environmental scientist is a generalist who uses science-related knowledge relevant to environmental quality, such as air or water chemistry, climate modelling, or the ecological effects of pollution.
Several well-known environmental scientists who have worked in Canada are: William Rees of the University of British Columbia, who studies ecological economics and footprints, David Schindler of the University of Alberta, who studies the effects of pollution and climate change on lakes, Bridget Stutchbury of York University, who examines factors affecting bird conservation, and Andrew Weaver of the University of Victoria, who studies the causes and consequences of climate change.
Another group of people, known as environmentalists, is also involved with these sorts of issues, especially in the sense of advocacy. This involves taking a strong public stance on a particular environmental issue, in terms of the need to address the problem. David Suzuki is perhaps the most famous environmentalist in Canada, because he has so effectively influenced the attitudes of people through books, television, and other media.
Elizabeth May is another well-known Canadian environmentalist, who has worked to deal with many issues as the director of the Sierra Club of Canada, and more recently as the head of the Green Party of Canada and a Member of Parliament.
A final example is Paul Watson, a direct-action environmentalist who has worked through the Sea Shepherd Society. However, any person can be called an environmentalist if they care about the quality of the environment and work towards changes that would help to resolve the issue. Environmentalists may work as individuals, and they often pursue their advocacy through non-governmental organizations NGOs; see Chapter 27 for an explanation of the role of NGOs in Canada and internationally.
Canadian Focus 1. In , he became a biology professor at the University of British Columbia, where he studied the genetics of fruit flies. Beginning in the mids, Suzuki became engaged in media ventures designed to popularize knowledge about scientific issues important to society, most notably through the Quirks and Quarks radio and Nature of Things television series of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Through these media efforts, as well as his many books, magazine and newspaper articles, and public lectures, Suzuki has been instrumental in informing a broad public in Canada and other countries about the gravity of environmental problems, including their scientific and socio-economic dimensions. This is not to say that everyone agrees with his interpretation of environmental issues.
Such issues are always controversial, and there are people who believe that some environmental problems — even climate change and the effects of pesticides — are not important. But despite this disagreement, David Suzuki is a highly respected spokesperson on a wide range of environmental topics.
Suzuki has built a worldwide following of a broad constituency of people concerned about environmental damage and social equity.
By doing this, he has contributed greatly to the identification and resolution of environmental problems in Canada and the world. The universe consists of billions of billions of stars and probably an even larger number of associated planets. Earth is the third closest planet to the sun, orbiting that medium-sized star every days at an average distance of million kilometres, and revolving on its own axis every 24 hours. Earth is a spherical body with a diameter of 12, kilometres.
The most singularly exceptional characteristic of Earth is the fact that certain qualities of its environment have led to the genesis and subsequent evolution of organisms and ecosystems. The beginning of life occurred about 3. It is not exactly known how life first evolved from inanimate matter, although it is believed to have been a spontaneous event. On other words, the genesis of life happened naturally, as a direct result of appropriate physical and chemical conditions.
Aside from the musings of science fiction, Earth is celebrated as the only place in the universe that is known to sustain life and its associated ecological processes. Of course, this observation simply reflects our present state of knowledge.
We do not actually know that organisms do not exist elsewhere — only that life or its signals have not yet been discovered anywhere else in the universe.
In fact, many scientists believe that because of the extraordinary diversity of environments that must exist among the innumerable planets of the multitudinous solar systems of the universe, it is likely that life forms have developed elsewhere. Nevertheless, the fact remains that Earth is the only planet definitely known to support organisms and ecosystems.
This makes Earth an extraordinarily special place. We can consider the universe at various hierarchical levels Figure 1. The scale ranges from the extremely small, such as subatomic particles and photons, to the fantastically large, such as galaxies and, ultimately, the universe. Life on Earth occupies intermediate levels of this hierarchy.
The realm of ecology encompasses the following levels:. A species is defined as individuals and populations that can potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring see Chapter 7.
The word ecosystem is a generic term that is used to describe one or more communities of organisms that are interacting with their environment as a defined unit. As such, ecosystems can be organized in a hierarchy — they may range from small units occurring in discrete microhabitats such as an aquatic ecosystem contained within a pitcher plant or in a garden surrounded by pavement to much larger scales such as a landscape or seascape.
Even the biosphere can be viewed as being a single ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the natural world consider the web-like connections among the many components of ecosystems in a holistic manner. This ecosystem approach does not view the system as a random grouping of individuals, populations, species, communities, and environments.
Rather, it confirms all of these as being intrinsically connected and mutually dependent, although in varying degrees, and also as having emergent properties In Detail 1. All organisms require specific necessities of life, such as inorganic nutrients, food, and habitat with particular biological and physical qualities.
Green plants, for example, need access to an adequate supply of moisture, inorganic nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate , sunlight, and space. Animals require suitable foods of plant or animal biomass organic matter , along with habitat requirements that differ for each species.
It is important to understand that humans are no different in this respect from other species. Although this dependence may not always seem to be immediately apparent as we live our daily lives, we nevertheless depend on environmental resources such as food, energy, shelter, and water to sustain ourselves and our larger economies.
It follows that the development and growth of individual people, their populations, and their societies and cultures are limited to some degree by environmental factors. Examples of such constraints include excessively cold or dry climatic conditions, mountainous or otherwise inhospitable terrain, and other factors that influence food production by agriculture or hunting.
However, humans are often able to favourably manipulate their environmental circumstances. For example, crop productivity may be increased by irrigating agricultural land, by applying fertilizer, or by managing pests. In fact, humans are enormously more capable of overcoming their environmental constraints than any other species. This ability is a distinguishing characteristic of our species. When humans and their societies perceive an environmental constraint, such as a scarcity of resources, they often have been able to understand the limiting factors and to then use insight and tools to manipulate the environment accordingly.
All the latest development and reports related to the environmental Science and Ecology needs to be prepared by the Candidates. Environment is the sum total of what is around something or someone. It includes living things and natural forces. The environment of living things provides conditions for development and growth, as well as of danger and damage. Living things do not simply exist in their environment.
Every one of us is sustained by various kinds of natural resources — such as food, materials, and energy that are harvested or otherwise extracted from the environment. Our need for those resources is absolute — we cannot survive without them. Moreover, the same is true of all other species — every organism is a component of an ecosystem that provides the means of subsistence. Collectively, the needs and activities of people comprise a human economy. That economy operates at various scales, ranging from an individual person, to a family, to communities such as towns and cities, nation-states such as Canada , and ultimately the global human enterprise. While an enormous and rapidly growing number of people are supported by the global economy, a lot of environmental damage is also being caused. The most important of the damages are the depletion of vital natural resources, various kinds of pollution including climate change , and widespread destruction of natural habitats to the extent that the survival of many of the natural ecosystems and species of Earth are at grave risk.
) includes 90 highly vulnerable biological traits based on their habitat specificity, limited environmental tolerance, dependence on specific.
Over the past few years, the UPSC has placed higher weightage on the subject of Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity in its examination syllabus. Questions regarding the correct method to prepare the environment for UPSC exams is rampant. Environment and ecology as subjects are ever-changing in nature, and there is no one source you can refer to for holistic knowledge on this subject.
It is a two stage exam consisting of:. Civil Services Preliminary Examination objective type for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination. The first stage of the exam i. Marks secured in Preliminary Exam are not taken into account while preparing the final merit. It has questions broadly covering the following topics carrying a maximum of marks to be solved in 2 hours.
Так вы успели его рассмотреть. - Господи. Когда я опустился на колени, чтобы помочь ему, этот человек стал совать мне пальцы прямо в лицо. Он хотел отдать кольцо. Какие же страшные были у него руки.
Сьюзан хотелось закричать: Дэвид, не соглашайся. Это не принесет тебе радости. У нас много денег - какая разница, кто из нас их получает. Но это была чужая епархия. В конце концов ей пришлось смириться.
Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены. От нее исходил легкий аромат присыпки Джонсонс беби. Его взгляд скользнул по стройной фигурке, задержался на белой блузке с едва различимым под ней бюстгальтером, на юбке до колен цвета хаки и, наконец, на ее ногах… ногах Сьюзан Флетчер. Трудно поверить, что такие ножки носят 170 баллов IQ. Охранник покачал головой.
Электроснабжение уже наверняка восстановили. - Он открыл жалюзи. - Все еще темно? - спросила Мидж. Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи. То, что он увидел, невозможно было себе представить.
Она молила Бога, чтобы Стратмору звонил Дэвид. Скажи мне скорей, что с ним все в порядке, - думала .
Он так или иначе собирался вернуть деньги. Он поехал в Испанию не ради денег. Он сделал это из-за Сьюзан. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор - ее наставник и покровитель. Сьюзан многим ему обязана; потратить день на то, чтобы исполнить его поручение, - это самое меньшее, что он мог для нее сделать.
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