File Name: discuss prenatal factors which affect child development and learning .zip
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As discussed in Chapter 1 , a growing body of work has significantly strengthened understanding of the factors that influence mental, emotional, and behavioral MEB development from well before a child is born through adolescence, the mechanisms through which they exert that influence, and the complex interactions among them.
In considering physical development, the specific needs for children vary by age. Strategies for supporting each age group will be outlined in Lesson Three. Understanding that infants and toddlers experience rapid physical growth while older children refine skills already attained will make it easier to meet the individual needs of children and youth in group care. This lesson provides a snapshot of development by age group. A more detailed understanding can be achieved by reading Lesson Two for each age track.
While there is a natural progression when it comes to physical development, the pace of that progression can be influenced both positively and negatively by environmental and experiential factors.
These factors include:. Individual differences exist when it comes to the precise age at which children meet milestones; each child is unique. Think of milestones as guidelines to help staff understand and identify typical patterns of development and to know when and what to look for as children mature.
Infants are dependent on adults to support their emerging physical abilities in a safe and nurturing environment. From the beginning, infants want to explore their world by making connections. While each infant has his or her own schedule for development, they are often eager to move their mouths, eyes and bodies toward people and objects that comfort and interest them.
Toddlers are on the move. They are determined to master movement, balance and fine-motor small-muscle and gross-motor large-muscle skills. With practice, they get stronger and their abilities become increasingly more advanced. Toddlers need time for these new experiences. It is essential for toddlers to explore the world around them with a trusting, caring adult who balances the need for exploration with safety.
Preschoolers spend a great deal of time running, climbing, jumping, and chasing each other; they scribble, paint, build, pour, cut with scissors, put puzzles together, and string beads.
They are constantly on the move and their skills improve significantly from the time that they were toddlers. They become increasingly more independent. School-agers mature while refining their gross- and fine-motor skills.
They gain more control of their bodies and are better able to coordinate and balance, as seen in activities such as jumping rope, organized sports, obstacle courses, and yoga.
School-agers become more proficient in their fine-motor skills and are able to use utensils, tie their shoelaces, use clasps and buttons, and color in lines. They gradually become less egocentric and are better able to think about and understand things from different viewpoints. School-age children will experience normal body changes as puberty begins. Sometimes these changes can be drastic, seeming to happen overnight, while other changes happen gradually over months or years.
The changes that accompany the onset of puberty can often be confusing and even scary for school-age children. Here are a few considerations:. To create an inclusive environment that supports all learners, you must first model an inclusive attitude.
Your facility is compliant with the Rehabilitation Act Section , so at a minimum children and families with a variety of physical needs can access your building.
You must go beyond access, however. Make sure all children and families feel welcome and involved. Consider the experiences offered in your program, and help staff members brainstorm possible modifications and adaptations. You and your staff play a critical role in supporting all ages and stages of physical development. Though the progression of skill development is predictable, the pace at which each child reaches milestones is unique.
Lesson Three will focus on strategies for meeting the physical development needs of the children and youth your program serves. There are many resources listed in the reference section that could be useful to both staff and families in deepening their understanding of what to expect in terms of physical development.
Take some time to explore those resources and include relevant items in both your staff and family resource areas. Observation is one of the best ways to see the range of development across the ages. Carve out some time each day for a week to observe the different age groups in your program.
You will walk away with a greater understanding and appreciation for the amazing process of development. Another option is to have staff observe in an age group different from theirs, especially a younger group. This can help staff appreciate how far their children have progressed while sharpening their observations skills.
He is 24 months old and is walking up and down steps by placing both feet on each step. How do you respond? True or false? You are preparing a professional development in-service for your staff members on physical development. The American Academy of Pediatrics. New York: Bantam Books. Caring for your school-age child. Berk, L. Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood 5th ed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Developmental Milestones.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body and Mind. Kids Included Together. Retrieved from www. Schickeadanz, J. Understanding Children. Trawick-Smith, J. Secondary tabs Objectives :. Identify typical developmental milestones for all of the ages your program serves. Discuss factors that influence physical development.
Learn Learn. Influences on Physical Development While there is a natural progression when it comes to physical development, the pace of that progression can be influenced both positively and negatively by environmental and experiential factors.
These factors include: Prenatal care : Lack of prenatal care or prenatal exposure to harmful substances, such as drugs and alcohol, can negatively influence development.
Prematurity : Children born before the 38th week of development and children having low birth weight may experience respiration difficulties, vision problems, and feeding and digestive problems. Basic needs : Failure to meet basic needs such as safety, love, housing, and food due to socioeconomic factors or neglect can negatively influence brain development, which in turn impacts physical development. Culture : Some cultures may not value reaching developmental milestones as quickly as others; some may not value the independence that supports physical development.
Temperament and learning styles : There are many types of learners. Some children learn through physical, hands-on activities, while others may observe and keep to themselves. Developmental Milestones Individual differences exist when it comes to the precise age at which children meet milestones; each child is unique. Infants Infants are dependent on adults to support their emerging physical abilities in a safe and nurturing environment. Here is a snapshot of physical development during infancy birth to 18 months.
First movements are reflexive inborn, automatic behaviors. For example, infants startled by a loud sound or sudden body shift will extend their legs and throw their arms outward and then bring them back toward their bodies. Young infants begin to use their fine-motor skills and senses to learn more about their world.
With hands and mouth, the infant further explores the rattle. Mobile infants begin to use their large gross-motor and small fine-motor muscles to further explore their world and take action to meet their needs. For example, mobile infants may crawl to a chair and pull themselves up or walk across the grass to a sandbox, bend down, and pick up a small shovel.
Mobile infants are refining their fine-motor skills, such as using their thumbs and forefingers pincer grasp to pick up a Cheerio or to help a caregiver turn the pages of a board book.
Older mobile infants are refining their gross-motor skills, such as stacking and lining up blocks and walking while carrying objects in each hand. Toddlers Toddlers are on the move. Here is a snapshot of physical development for toddlers 18 to 36 months. Toddlers use their bodies to further understand their world and to gain independence; they do not yet understand their limitations. Toddlers use their gross-motor big muscles skills in activities such as climbing, running, pushing, pulling, jumping, and throwing.
Older toddlers begin to walk up stairs with one foot on each step. Toddlers refine their fine-motor small muscles skills by practicing drawing, fitting pieces into simple puzzles, zipping with help , stacking and building with blocks, turning pages of a book, and holding a drinking cup.
Toddlers point to objects as a way of communication. Preschoolers Preschoolers spend a great deal of time running, climbing, jumping, and chasing each other; they scribble, paint, build, pour, cut with scissors, put puzzles together, and string beads. Here is a snapshot of physical development for preschoolers 3 to 5 years. Three-year-olds are good at running and climbing. They can pedal a tricycle and walk up and down stairs placing one foot on each step. They are able to wash and dry their hands.
Four-year-olds can hop and balance on one foot for up to two seconds. They catch a bounced ball most of the time and they are able to pour, cut, and mash their own food. They can use scissors and draw a person with two to four body parts. Five-year-olds can skip and stand on one foot for 10 seconds or longer.
Although these reported rates have declined in recent years, they may not reflect exposure early in the pregnancy before women know they are pregnant. Information from current studies demonstrates the importance of developing strategies to promote the health and development of exposed children, to implement effective prevention programs, and to avoid the unnecessary anxiety that can stigmatize mothers and children. The knowledge base regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse is growing, often in response to interest by scientists and the support available from federal funding sources. Currently, there is a great deal of attention being paid to the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco and to methamphetamines. Much of the recent research on the effects of prenatal drug exposure has been conducted among young children exposed to cocaine prenatally.
Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length birth, early infancy, and late infancy ; for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ. Head circumference at birth was not collected routinely; head circumference at 4 months but not head circumference growth thereafter was related to IQ. Late postnatal growth was not associated with any outcome.
examine the factors affecting prenatal development, significantly, before and development at prenatal period from a mother-child care perspective, and Experimental investigations have confirmed the prenatal learning.
Comments on the article by Lumey and Susser. The Lumey and Susser article discusses the research on the long-term impacts of prenatal and postnatal nutrition with a focus on the psychosocial and behavioural consequences in adulthood. This is an important health and well-being issue for the general population. Inadequate nutrition in the first months of life, during pregnancy or shortly after birth, can affect the development of the brain in ways that leave traces into adulthood. The authors' interpretations are based on the literature they present.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The domains of child development and early learning are discussed in different terms and categorized in different ways in the various fields and disciplines that are involved in research, practice, and policy related to children from birth through age 8. To organize the discussion in this report, the committee elected to use the approach and overarching terms depicted in Figure
Data are available from the UK Biobank for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight an index of prenatal development and adult height an index of early childhood development. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function partial correlations; pr 0. Within the normal range of birth weight 10 th to 90 th percentile , there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function pr 0.
Prenatal development is highly influenced by the inheritance, expression, and regulation of genes.
Но это полный абсурд. Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского. - Вот что нам надо сделать. - Стратмор начал спокойно излагать свой план. - Мы сотрем всю переписку Хейла с Танкадо, уничтожим записи о том, что я обошел систему фильтров, все диагнозы Чатрукьяна относительно ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о работе компьютера над Цифровой крепостью, одним словом -. Цифровая крепость исчезнет бесследно. Словно ее никогда не .
Мужские голоса. Они долетали до нее из вентиляционного люка, расположенного внизу, почти у пола. Сьюзан закрыла дверь и подошла ближе. Голоса заглушал шум генераторов. Казалось, говорившие находились этажом ниже.
А потом вы отдали кольцо какой-то девушке. - Я же говорила. От этого кольца мне было не по. На девушке было много украшений, и я подумала, что ей это кольцо понравится. - А она не увидела в этом ничего странного. В том, что вы просто так отдали ей кольцо.
Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида. Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом. Я был уверен, что он тебе все рассказал. Сьюзан ощутила угрызения совести. - Я тоже хватила через край.
Сигналы продолжались. Источник их находился где-то совсем близко. Сьюзан поворачивалась то влево, то вправо.
Капельки Росы. Лицо мужчины из мертвенно-бледного стало красным.
ГЛАВА 29 Все еще нервничая из-за столкновения с Хейлом, Сьюзан вглядывалась в стеклянную стену Третьего узла. В шифровалке не было ни души. Хейл замолк, уставившись в свой компьютер. Она мечтала, чтобы он поскорее ушел. Сьюзан подумала, не позвонить ли ей Стратмору.
Он был из другого теста - не их фирменной закваски. Она с самого начала возражала против его кандидатуры, но АНБ посчитало, что другого выхода. Хейл появился в порядке возмещения ущерба. После фиаско Попрыгунчика.
Отправляйся домой, уже поздно. Она окинула его высокомерным взглядом и швырнула отчет на стол.
Конечно, согласился. Вы же мой шеф. Вы заместитель директора АНБ. Он не мог отказаться.
Невзламываемый шифр - математическая бессмыслица. Он это отлично знает. Стратмор провел рукой по вспотевшему лбу. - Этот шифр есть продукт нового типа шифровального алгоритма, с таким нам еще не приходилось сталкиваться. Эти слова повергли Сьюзан в еще большее смятение.
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